Born in July

July 4, 68 Salonina Matidia the daughter and only child of Ulpia Marciana and wealthy praetor Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus. Her maternal uncle was the Roman Emperor Trajan. Trajan had no children and treated her like his daughter. Her father died in 78 and Matidia went with her mother to live with Trajan and his wife, Pompeia Plotina
July 21, 356 Alexander the Great a King of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest ancient India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful military commanders
July 6, 371 Cleombrotus I known of Cleombrotus' early life. Son of Pausanias, he became king of Sparta after the death of his brother Agesipolis I in 380 BC, and led the allied Spartan-Peloponnesian army against the Thebans under Epaminondas in the Battle of Leuctra. His death and the utter defeat of his army led to the end of Spartan dominance in ancient Greece. Cleombrotus was succeeded by his son Agesipolis His other son was Cleomenes II
July 18, 390 Brennus (4th century BC) a chieftain of the Senones. He defeated the Romans at the Battle of the Allia. In 387 BC he led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome and captured most of the city, holding it for several months. Brennus's sack of Rome was the only time the city was occupied by a non-Roman army before the fall of the city to the Goths in 410 AD
July 2, 419 Valentinian III Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. His reign was marked by the ongoing dismemberment of the Western Empire
July 5, 465 Ahkal Mo' Naab' I a ruler of the Maya city of Palenque. He ruled from June 5, 501 AD to his death
July 21, 541 Emperor Wen of Sui the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty. He was a hard-working administrator and a micromanager. As a Buddhist, he encouraged the spread of Buddhism through the state. He is regarded as one of the most important emperors in Chinese history, reunifying China in 589 after centuries of division since the fall of Western Jin Dynasty in 316. During his reign began the construction of the Grand Canal
July 21, 628 Emperor Gaozong of Tang the third emperor of the Tang Dynasty in China, ruling from 649 to 683. Emperor Gaozong was the son of Emperor Taizong and Empress Zhangsun
July 10, 645 Soga no Iruka the son of Soga no Emishi a statesman in the Asuka Period of Japan.
July 20, 647 Yazid I the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. Yazid was the Caliph as appointed by his father Muawiyah I and ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE
July 14, 664 Eorcenberht of Kent king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Kent from 640 until his death, succeeding his father Eadbald.
July 4, 673 Ecgberht of Kent a King of Kent who ruled from 664 to 673, succeeding his father Eorcenberht.
July 20, 682 Taichō a shugendō monk in Nara period Japan. He was raised in Echizen Province, which was in the southern portion of present day Fukui Prefecture. He was the second son of Mikami Yasuzumi. He is said to be the first person to reach the top of Mount Haku in neighboring Kaga Province and other peaks in the Ryōhaku Mountains
July 19, 810 Muhammad al-Bukhari a Persian Islamic scholar who authored the hadith collection known as Sahih al-Bukhari, regarded by Sunni Muslims as one of the most sahih of all hadith compilations. He also wrote the books Al-Adab al-Mufrad
July 2, 866 Robert the Strong Margrave in Neustria. His family is named after him and called the Robertians. In 853 he was named missus dominicus by Charles the Bald, King of West Francia. He was the father of two kings of West Francia Odo and Robert I of France. Robert the Strong was the great-grandfather of Hugh Capet and thus the ancestor of all the Capetians
July 29, 869 Muhammad al-Mahdi believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world. Twelver Shī‘a believe that al-Mahdī was born in 869 and assumed Imamate at 5 years of age following the death of his father Hasan al-Askari. In the early years of his Imamate he would only contact his followers through The Four Deputies. After a 72-year period, known as Minor Occultation, a few days before the death of his fourth deputy Abul Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Samarri in 941, he is believed to have sent his followers a letter. In that letter that was transmitted by al-Samarri he declared the beginning of Major Occultation during which Mahdi is not in contact with his followers
July 25, 885 Ragenold of Neustria the Count of Herbauges from 852 and Count of Maine and Margrave of Neustria from 878. His family is unidentified, but he may have been a son of Reginald of Herbauges
July 4, 907 Luitpold Margrave of Bavaria the ancestor of the Luitpolding dynasty which ruled Bavaria and Carinthia until the mid-tenth century.
July 24, 922 Emperor Suzaku the 61st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
July 14, 926 Emperor Murakami the 62nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
July 11, 937 Rudolph II of Burgundy king of Upper Burgundy , Lower Burgundy , and Italy. He was the son of Rudolph I, king of Upper Burgundy, a member of the Elder House of Welf, and it is presumed that his mother was his father's known wife, Guilla of Provence. He married Bertha of Swabia
July 1, 965 Alhazen an Arab, Muslim, scientist, polymath, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, astronomy, mathematics, meteorology, visual perception and the scientific method.
July 25, 975 Thietmar of Merseburg a German chronicler who was also bishop of Merseburg.
July 13, 982 Landulf IV of Benevento the prince of Capua and Benevento from 968, when he was associated with his father, Pandulf Ironhead, and prince of Salerno associated with his father from 977 or 978. In 968, his uncle Landulf III died and this was the occasion of his rise, Pandulf ignored the rights of Landulf's son Pandulf, his nephew, and instead associated his own son with the government
July 13, 982 Gunther Margrave of Merseburg the Margrave of Merseburg from 965 until his death, upon which the march of Merseburg was united to that of Meissen.
July 13, 982 Pandulf II of Salerno the prince of Salerno , the second of such princes of the family of the princes of Capua. He was originally appointed heir to the childless Gisulf I of Salerno, who had been reinstated on his throne by Pandulf's father, Pandulf Ironhead. On the former's death in 977, he succeeded him as co-prince of Salerno with his father. On the latter's death in March 981, the Ironhead's great principality was divided such that he inherited only Salerno, while Capua-Benevento went to his elder brother Landulf IV
July 20, 985 Antipope Boniface VII an antipope. He is supposed to have put Pope Benedict VI to death. A popular tumult compelled him to flee to Constantinople in 974; he carried off a vast treasure, and returned in 984 and removed Pope John XIV from office, who had been elected in his absence, by murder. After a brief rule from 984 to 985, he died under suspicious circumstances
July 21, 1006 Gisela of Burgundy the daughter of Conrad the Peaceful, King of Burgundy and Adelaide of Bellay, Conrad's second wife whom he probably married for love, as he had already produced an heir by his first, more dynastic, marriage and was thus free to wed as he pleased. Gisela was a niece of the empress Adelaide
July 25, 1008 Anund Jacob King of Sweden from 1022 until around 1050. He is believed to have been born on July 25, in either 1008 or 1010 as Jakob. When the Swedish Thing was to elect him the co-ruler of Sweden, the people objected to his non-Scandinavian name. They then gave him the pronomen Anund. The line of kings appended to the Westrogothic law says that he was called Kolbränna as he had the habit of burning down the houses of his opponents
July 18, 1013 Hermann of Reichenau an 11th-century scholar, composer, music theorist, mathematician, and astronomer. He composed the Marian prayer Alma Redemptoris Mater. He was beatified in 1863
July 25, 1016 Casimir I the Restorer a Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.
July 5, 1029 Al-Mustansir Billah born in Cairo on 16th Jumada II, 420 AH and at the age of only eight months was declared to succeed his father. His name was Ma'd Abu Tamim, surnamed al-Mustansir bil-Lah "The Asker Of Victory From God". He ascended to the Fatimid Caliphate throne on 15th Shaban, 427/June 13, 1036 at the age of 6. During the early years of his Caliphate, the state affairs were administered by his mother. His period of Caliphate lasted for 60 years, the longest of all the caliphs, either in Egypt or elsewhere in Islamic states
July 26, 1030 Stanislaus of Szczepanów a Bishop of Kraków known chiefly for having been martyred by the Polish king Bolesław II the Bold. Stanislaus is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Stanislaus the Martyr
July 26, 1043 Moses the Hungarian a Kievan Russian monk of Hungarian origin. He is venerated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church
July 7, 1053 Emperor Shirakawa the 72nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
July 3, 1093 Robert of Rhuddlan a Norman adventurer who became lord of much of north-east Wales and for a period lord of all North Wales.
July 28, 1094 William Bertrand of Provence the count and margrave of Provence from 1051 to his death. He succeeded his father Fulk Bertrand on his death in that year, but did not receive the margravial title at first, for its went to his uncle Josfred
July 4, 1095 Usama ibn Munqidh a medieval Muslim poet, author, faris , and diplomat from the Banu Munqidh dynasty of Shaizar in northern Syria. His life coincided with the rise of several medieval Muslim dynasties, the arrival of the First Crusade, and the establishment of the crusader states
July 7, 1119 Emperor Sutoku the 75th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
July 17, 1134 Centule VI Viscount of Béarn the Viscount of Béarn from 1131 to his death. Like his father, he was an ideal Christian prince for his age, ready to serve the Church in the Reconquista
July 22, 1136 William FitzEmpress the youngest of the three sons of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou and Empress Matilda, daughter of King Henry I of England.
July 31, 1143 Emperor Nijō the 78th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1158 through 1165
July 16, 1164 Frederick V Duke of Swabia duke of Swabia from 1167 to his death. He was the eldest son of Frederick III Barbarossa and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy
July 25, 1165 Ibn Arabi an Arab Andalusian Sufi mystic and philosopher.
July 29, 1166 Henry II Count of Champagne count of Champagne from 1181 to 1197, and King of Jerusalem from 1192 to 1197, although he never used the title of king.
July 9, 1169 Guido of Pisa a geographer from Pisa. In 1119 he edited and updated the Geographica, a geographic encyclopedia first created in the eighth century by Anonymous of Ravenna. It followed in the tradition of earlier geographies, such as Strabo's Geographica, Pomponius Mela's De situ orbis, Claudius Ptolemy's Geographia, and the Antonine Itinerary. Guido's book included text, as well as maps of Italy and the world as it was known to the Romans. It also included the only known text of the Carmen in victoriam Pisanorum. His map of the Western Roman Empire contains the inscription Carantano, which is probably the first cartographical mention of the Slovene territory
July 25, 1186 Hugh de Lacy Lord of Meath an Anglo-Norman magnate. He had substantial land holdings in Herefordshire and Shropshire, England. Following his participation in the Norman Invasion of Ireland, he was granted the lands of the Kingdom of Meath by the Anglo-Norman King Henry II of England in 1172. The Lordship of Meath was the most extensive liberty in Ireland
July 24, 1190 Yelü Chucai a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty, who became a vigorous adviser and administrator of the early Mongol Empire in the Confucian tradition. He was the first of Genghis Khan's retainers to formulate policy during the Mongol conquests, and he also introduced many administrative reforms in North China during the reign of Genghis Khan and his successor Ögedei
July 16, 1194 Clare of Assisi an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. She founded the Order of Poor Ladies, a monastic religious order for women in the Franciscan tradition, and wrote their Rule of Life—the first monastic rule known to have been written by a woman. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honor as the Order of Saint Clare, commonly referred to today as the Poor Clares
July 24, 1198 Berthold of Hanover a German Cistercian and Bishop of Livonia, who met his death in a crusade against the pagan Livonians.