July events in history

July 19, 64 Great Fire of Rome: a fire begins to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burns completely out of control. According to a popular, but untrue legend, Nero fiddled as the city burned
July 1, 69 Tiberius Julius Alexander orders his Roman legions in Alexandria to swear allegiance to Vespasian as Emperor
July 20, 70 Siege of Jerusalem – Titus, son of emperor Vespasian, storms the Fortress of Antonia north of the Temple Mount. The Roman army is drawn into street fights with the Zealots
July 10, 138 Emperor Hadrian dies after a heart failure at Baiae; he is buried at Rome in the Tomb of Hadrian beside his late wife, Vibia Sabina
July 17, 180 Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians. This is the earliest record of Christianity in that part of the world
July 21, 230 Pope Pontian succeeds Urban I as the eighteenth pope
July 29, 238 The Praetorian Guard storm the palace and capture Pupienus and Balbinus. They are dragged through the streets of Rome and executed. On the same day, Gordian III, age 13, is proclaimed emperor
July 21, 285 Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar and co-ruler
July 25, 285 Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler
July 25, 306 Constantine I is proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops
July 25, 315 The Arch of Constantine is completed near the Colosseum in Rome to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge
July 3, 324 Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium
July 5, 328 The official opening of Constantine's Bridge built over the Danube between Sucidava (Corabia, Romania) and Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria) by the Roman architect Theophilus Patricius
July 18, 362 Roman–Persian Wars: Emperor Julian arrives at Antioch with a Roman expeditionary force (60,000 men) and stays there for nine months to launch a campaign against the Persian Empire
July 21, 365 A tsunami devastates the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The tsunami was caused by the Crete earthquake estimated to be 8.0 on the Richter scale. Five thousand people perished in Alexandria, and 45,000 more died outside the city
July 4, 414 Emperor Theodosius II, age 13, yields power to his older sister Aelia Pulcheria, who reigned as regent and proclaimed herself empress (Augusta) of the Eastern Roman Empire
July 2, 437 Emperor Valentinian III, begins his reign over the Western Roman Empire. His mother Galla Placidia ends her regency, but continues to exercise political influence at the court in Rome
July 9, 455 The Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
July 11, 472 After being besieged in Rome by his own generals, Western Roman Emperor Anthemius is captured in the St. Peter's Basilica and put to death
July 19, 484 Leontius, Roman usurper, is crowned Eastern emperor at Tarsus (modern Turkey). He is recognized in Antioch and makes it his capital
July 9, 491 Odoacer makes a night assault with his Heruli guardsmen, engaging Theoderic the Great in Ad Pinetam. Both sides suffer heavy losses, but in the end Theodoric forces Odoacer back into Ravenna
July 1, 552 Battle of Taginae: Byzantine forces under Narses defeat the Ostrogoths in Italy. During the fightings king Totila is mortally wounded
July 29, 615 Pakal ascends the throne of Palenque at the age of 12
July 16, 622 The beginning of the Islamic calendar
July 2, 626 Li Shimin, the future Emperor Taizong of Tang, ambushes and kills his rival brothers Li Yuanji and Li Jiancheng in the Xuanwu Gate Incident
July 30, 634 Battle of Ajnadayn: Byzantine forces under Theodore are defeated by the Rashidun Caliphate near Beit Shemesh (modern Israel)
July 6, 640 Battle of Heliopolis: The Muslim Arab army under 'Amr ibn al-'As defeat the Byzantine forces near Heliopolis (Egypt)
July 10, 645 Isshi Incident: Prince Naka-no-Ōe and Fujiwara no Kamatari assassinate Soga no Iruka during a coup d'état at the imperial palace
July 18, 645 Chinese forces under general Li Shiji besiege the strategic fortress city of Anshi (Liaoning) during the Goguryeo–Tang War
July 26, 657 First Fitna: in the Battle of Siffin, troops led by Ali ibn Abu Talib clash with those led by Muawiyah I
July 9, 660 Battle of Hwangsanbeol: Korean forces under general Kim Yu-shin defeat the army of Baekje at Nonsan (South Korea)
July 2, 706 In China, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang inters the bodies of relatives in the Qianling Mausoleum, located on Mount Liang outside Chang'an
July 19, 711 Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Battle of Guadalete – Umayyad forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by King Roderic
July 14, 756 An Lushan Rebellion: Emperor Xuanzong flees the capital Chang'an as An Lushan's forces advance toward the city
July 15, 756 An Lushan Rebellion: Emperor Xuanzong of Tang is ordered by his Imperial Guards to execute chancellor ] by forcing him to commit suicide or face a mutiny. He permits his consort Yang Guifei to be strangled by his chief eunuch. General An Lushan has other members of the emperor's family killed
July 30, 762 Baghdad is founded by caliph Al-Mansur
July 31, 781 The oldest recorded eruption of Mount Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781)
July 26, 811 Battle of Pliska: Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I I is killed and his heir Staurakios is seriously wounded
July 4, 836 Pactum Sicardi, a peace treaty between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples, is signed
July 22, 838 Battle of Anzen: The Byzantine emperor Theophilos suffers a heavy defeat by the Abbasids
July 25, 864 The Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings
July 9, 869 A magnitude 8.6Ms earthquake and subsequent tsunami strikes the area around Sendai in the northern part of Honshu, Japan
July 29, 904 Sack of Thessalonica: Saracen raiders under Leo of Tripoli sack Thessaloniki, the Byzantine Empire's second-largest city, after a short siege, and plunder it for a week
July 11, 911 Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy
July 20, 911 Rollo lays siege to Chartres
July 26, 920 Rout of an alliance of Christian troops from Navarre and Léon against the Muslims at Pamplona
July 12, 927 Æthelstan, King of England, secures a pledge from Constantine II of Scotland that the latter will not ally with Viking kings, beginning the process of unifying Great Britain. This is considered the closest thing that England has to a foundation date
July 2, 963 The imperial army proclaims Nicephorus Phocas Emperor of the Romans on the plains outside Cappadocian Caesarea
July 3, 987 Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, the first of the Capetian dynasty that would rule France until the French Revolution in 1792
July 10, 988 The Norse King Glun Iarainn recognises Máel Sechnaill II, High King of Ireland, and agrees to pay taxes and accept Brehon Law; the event is considered to be the founding of the city of Dublin