Born on June 12

949 Emperor Reizei the 63rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1107 Emperor Gaozong of Song the tenth emperor of the Song dynasty of China. He reigned from 1127 to 1162. Gaozong fled south after the Jurchens overran Kaifeng during the Jingkang Incident of the Jin–Song wars and became the first emperor of what is now known as the Southern Song dynasty after he reëstablished his seat of government at Lin'an
1161 Constance Duchess of Brittany Duchess of Brittany and Countess of Richmond between 1166 and 1201. Constance was the only surviving child of Duke Conan IV by his wife, Margaret of Huntingdon, a sister of the Scottish kings Malcolm IV and William I
1294 John I of Brienne Count of Eu the son of Alphonso of Brienne and Marie de Lusigan. His mother was the heiress of Eu, Seine-Maritime, and he succeeded his father as Count of Eu in 1270
1519 Cosimo I de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.
1564 John Casimir Duke of Saxe-Coburg the Duke of Saxe-Coburg. He was the descendant of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin
1577 Paul Guldin a Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. He discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the surface and the volume of a solid of revolution. Guldin was noted for his association with the German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler
1653 Maria Amalia of Courland a German noblewoman. A princess of Courland from the Ketteler family, she was also Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel via her marriage on 21 May 1673 to her first cousin Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. She was the child of Jacob Kettler and Margravine Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg, eldest daughter of George William, Elector of Brandenburg
1655 Ernest Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen a duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
1733 Alessandro Longhi a Venetian portrait painter and printmaker in etching. He is known best for his oil portraits of Venetian nobles of state. His father was the famed genre painter Pietro Longhi. He trained under his father and Giuseppe Nogari. Like Sebastiano Bombelli in the prior century, Alessandro Longhi is noted for his zealous full-length depictions of robes and emblems of office. His "tumultuous and unusual technique shows first-hand knowledge of Rembrandt's etchings", according to Olimpia Theodoli
1733 Maruyama Ōkyo a Japanese artist active in the late 18th century. He moved to Kyoto, during which he studied artworks from Chinese, Japanese and Western sources. A personal style of Western naturalism mixed with Eastern decorative design emerged, and Ōkyo founded the Maruyama school of painting. Although many of his fellow artists criticized his work as too slavishly devoted to natural representation, it proved a success with laymen
1735 Claude-Carloman de Rulhière a French poet and historian.
1738 Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich a general of the Austrian Empire. Feldmarschall-Lieutenant and Commander of the Order of Maria Theresa. He played a major role in several battles against the French Army of Italy led by Napoleon during the French Revolutionary Wars
1754 Louis-Charles de Flers La Motte-Ango, vicomte de Flers joined the French Royal army and rose in rank to become a general officer in the French Revolutionary Wars. After serving in the Austrian Netherlands, he was appointed to command the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees. His army suffered several defeats in May and June 1793, but he rallied his troops to win a defensive victory at the Battle of Perpignan in July. The all-powerful Representatives-on-mission arrested him in August 1793 for a minor setback and sent him to Paris under arrest. The Committee of Public Safety executed him by guillotine on trumped up charges in the last days of the Reign of Terror. De Flers is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe
1760 Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai a French novelist, playwright, journalist, politician, and diplomat.
1767 Alexius Frederick Christian Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg a German prince of the House of Ascania. From 1796 until 1807 he was Reigning prince of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg, and from 1807 until 1834 the first Duke of the Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg
1771 Patrick Gass served as sergeant in the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He was important to the expedition because of his service as a carpenter, and he published the first journal of the expedition in 1807, seven years before the first publication based on Lewis and Clark's journals
1773 Amschel Mayer Rothschild a German Jewish banker of the Rothschild family financial dynasty.
1775 Karl Freiherr von Müffling a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall.
1776 Pierre Révoil a French painter in the Troubadour style.
1776 Karl Friedrich Burdach a German physiologist. He was born in Leipzig and died in Königsberg
1777 Robert Clark (U.S. politician) a United States Representative from New York.
1795 John Marston (sailor) an officer in the United States Navy.
1798 Samuel Cooper (general) a career United States Army officer, serving during the Second Seminole War and the Mexican-American War. Although little-known today, Cooper was also the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. After the conflict, he remained in Virginia as a farmer
1802 Harriet Martineau an English social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.
1804 Giovanni Zanardini an Italian physician and botanist who specialized in the field of phycology.
1806 John A. Roebling a German-born American civil engineer. He is famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge
1807 Ante Kuzmanić a Croatian physician and journalist.
1812 Edmond Hébert born at Villefargau, Yonne.
1814 Zsigmond Kemény a Hungarian author.
1819 Charles Kingsley a priest of the Church of England, a university professor, historian and novelist. He is particularly associated with the West Country and northeast Hampshire. He was a friend and correspondent with Charles Darwin
1821 Nikolai Zaremba a Russian musical theorist, teacher and composer. His most famous student was Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, who became his pupil 1861. Others included Dostojevsky's nephews, the children of his brother Mikhail and Vasily Safonov. Until 2010 almost nobody knew what he had composed
1824 Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse a French sculptor.
1827 Johanna Spyri best known for her book Heidi. Born Johanna Louise Heusser in the rural area of Hirzel, Switzerland, as a child she spent several summers in the area around Chur in Graubünden, the setting she later would use in her novels
1833 Infanta Maria Cristina of Spain (1833–1902) a daughter of Infante Francisco de Paula of Spain and his wife Princess Luisa Carlotta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. She became an Infanta of Portugal by her marriage to Infante Sebastian of Portugal and Spain
1840 Jakub Arbes an influential Czech revolutionary, intellectual and writer. He is best known as the creator of the literary genre called romanetto and spent much of his professional life in France
1842 Rikard Nordraak a Norwegian composer. He is best known as the composer of the Norwegian national anthem, "Ja, vi elsker dette landet"
1843 James Gilmour (missionary) a Scottish Protestant Christian missionary in China and Mongolia. He served with the London Missionary Society
1843 David Gill (astronomer) known for measuring astronomical distances, for astrophotography, and for geodesy. He spent much of his career in South Africa
1844 Januarius MacGahan an American journalist and war correspondent working for the New York Herald and the London Daily News. His articles describing the massacre of Bulgarian civilians by Turkish soldiers in 1876 created public outrage in Europe, and were a major factor in preventing Britain from supporting Turkey in the Russian-Turkish War of 1877–78, which led to Bulgaria gaining independence from the Ottoman Empire
1848 Fritz Seitz a German Romantic Era composer. He was a violinist who served as a concertmaster, who wrote chamber music and eight student concertos for the violin
1848 Laurent Marqueste a French sculptor in the neo-Baroque Beaux-Arts tradition. He was a pupil of François Jouffroy and of Alexandre Falguière and won the Prix de Rome in 1871
1851 Oliver Lodge a British physicist and writer involved in the development of key patents in wireless telegraphy. In his 1894 Royal Institution lectures , Lodge coined the term "coherer" for the device developed by French physicist Édouard Branly based on the work of Italian physicist Temistocle Calzecchi Onesti. In 1898 he was awarded the "syntonic" patent by the United States Patent Office. He was also credited by Lorentz with the first published description of the length contraction hypothesis, in 1893, though in fact Lodge's friend George Francis FitzGerald had first suggested the idea in print in 1889. Lodge was Principal of the University of Birmingham from 1900 to 1920
1854 Alexander Hangerli a Phanariote Greek Dragoman of the Ottoman Empire, and Prince of Moldavia between March 7 and July 24, 1807. He spent the latter part of his life as a refugee in the Russian Empire, where he became noted as a linguist. He was the brother of Constantine Hangerli, who reigned as Prince of Wallachia before being executed in 1799
1857 Achille Simonetti an Italian and English violinist and composer.
1858 Henry Scott Tuke an English visual artist; primarily a painter, but also a photographer. His most notable work was in the Impressionist style, and he is probably best known for his paintings of nude boys and young men
1858 Harry Johnston a British explorer, botanist, linguist and colonial administrator, one of the key players in the "Scramble for Africa" that occurred at the end of the 19th century.
1859 Prince Leopold Duke of Brabant the second child and only son and heir apparent of Leopold II of Belgium and his wife, Archduchess Marie Henriette of Austria.
1861 William Attewell a cricketer who played for Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club and England. Attewell was a medium pace bowler who was renowned for his extraordinary accuracy and economy. On the many sticky or crumbling pitches encountered in his prime Attewell could get on a great deal of spin so as to always beat the bat, whilst his accuracy would make slogging – the only way to make runs under such conditions – very difficult. He was responsible for the development of "off theory" – bowling wide of the off stump to a packed off-side field to frustrate batsmen on the rapidly improving pitches of the 1890s. At times Attewell was a useful batsman for his county, and he scored 102 against Kent in 1897
1862 James H. Brady a Republican politician from Idaho. He served as the state's eighth governor from 1909 to 1911 and a United States Senator for nearly five years, from 1913 until his death