Died on June 25

304 Amphibalus venerated as the early Christian priest who converted Saint Alban to Christianity. Alban sheltered the priest from religious persecution for a number of days, during which time Alban was so impressed with the priest's faith and teaching that Alban began to emulate him in worship, and became a Christian. When Roman soldiers came to seize the priest, Alban put on the priest's clothing and cloak, and went with the soldiers in the priest's stead. After Alban's martyrdom, Amphibalus escaped, but was eventually caught and also martyred
635 Emperor Gaozu of Tang the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626. Under the Sui dynasty, Li Yuan was the governor in the area of modern-day Shanxi, and was based in Taiyuan
862 Al-Muntasir the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 861 to 862, during the "Anarchy at Samarra". His title means He that Triumphs in the Lord
1134 Niels King of Denmark the King of Denmark from 1104 to 1134. Niels succeeded his brother Eric Evergood and is presumed to have been the youngest son of King Sweyn II Estridson. King Niels actively supported the canonization of Canute IV the Holy and supported his son Magnus I of Sweden by killing the potential successor Knud Lavard. His secular rule was supported by the clergy. Niels was killed in an ensuing civil war, and his successor was Eric II Emune
1218 Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester a French nobleman who took part in the Fourth Crusade and was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade. He died at the siege of Toulouse in 1218
1274 Nasir al-Din al-Tusi a Persian polymath and prolific writer: An architect, astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed. He was of the Ismaili-, and subsequently Twelver Shī‘ah Islamic belief. The Muslim scholar Ibn Khaldun considered Tusi to be the greatest of the later Persian scholars
1337 Frederick III of Sicily the regent and subsequently King of Sicily from 1295 until his death. He was the third son of Peter III of Aragon and served in the War of the Sicilian Vespers on behalf of his father and brothers, Alfonso and James. He was confirmed as King of Trinacria by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302. His reign saw important constitutional reforms: the Constitutiones regales, Capitula alia, and Ordinationes generales
1394 Dorothea of Montau a hermitess and visionary of 14th century Germany. After centuries of veneration in Central Europe, she was canonized in 1976
1408 William VII of Jülich 1st Duke of Berg born in Jülich, as the son of Gerhard VI of Jülich, Count of Berg and Ravensberg, and Margaret, daughter and heiress of Otto IV, Count of Ravensberg, and Margaret of Berg.
1423 Reinald IV Duke of Guelders and Jülich the son of William II, Duke of Jülich and Maria of Guelders, daughter of Reinald II, Duke of Guelders.
1483 Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers an English nobleman, courtier, and writer. He was one of the leading members of the Woodville family, which came to prominence during the reign of Edward IV of England. After Edward's death he was arrested and then executed by Richard, Duke of Gloucester as part of a power-struggle between Richard and the Woodvilles
1522 Franchinus Gaffurius an Italian music theorist and composer of the Renaissance. He was an almost exact contemporary of Josquin des Prez and Leonardo da Vinci, both of whom were his personal friends. He was one of the most famous musicians in Italy in the late 15th and early 16th centuries
1533 Mary Tudor Queen of France Queen of France. Mary became the third wife of Louis XII of France, more than 30 years her senior. Following his death, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. The marriage, which was performed secretly in France, took place without her brother's consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey and the couple were eventually pardoned by Henry VIII, although they were forced to pay a large fine
1573 Laura Dianti a lover of Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara after the death of his wife Lucrezia Borgia. She was probably also his third wife. She was also known under the pseudonym Eustochia
1579 Hatano Hideharu the eldest son of Hatano Harumichi and the head of Hatano clan.
1593 Michele Mercati a physician who was superintendent of the Vatican Botanical Garden under Popes Pius V, Gregory XIII, Sixtus V, and Clement VIII. He was one of the first scholars to recognise prehistoric stone tools as human-made rather than natural, or mythologically created 'ceraunia' or 'glossopetri' - 'thunderstones'
1601 Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby the son of Catherine Willoughby, 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, and Richard Bertie. Bertie was Lady Willoughby de Eresby's second husband, the first being Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. Peregrine Bertie's half-brothers, Henry and Charles Brandon, died as teenagers four years before his birth. His sister Susan married the Earl of Kent and then the nephew of Bess of Hardwick. Owing to religious politics, the parents had to move outside England and the boy was born at Wesel on the River Rhine
1634 John Marston (poet) an English poet, playwright and satirist during the late Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. His career as a writer lasted a decade, and his work is remembered for its energetic and often obscure style, its contributions to the development of a distinctively Jacobean style in poetry, and its idiosyncratic vocabulary
1638 Juan Pérez de Montalbán a Spanish Catholic priest, dramatist, poet and novelist.
1652 Abraham von Franckenberg a German mystic, author, poet and hymn-writer.
1665 Sigismund Francis Archduke of Austria the ruler of Further Austria including Tyrol from 1662 to 1665.
1671 Giovanni Battista Riccioli an Italian astronomer and a Catholic priest in the Jesuit order. He is known, among other things, for his experiments with pendulums and with falling bodies, for his discussion of 126 arguments concerning the motion of the Earth, and for introducing the current scheme of lunar nomenclature
1673 Charles de Batz-Castelmore d'Artagnan Ogier de Batz de Castelmore, Comte d'Artagnan served Louis XIV as captain of the Musketeers of the Guard and died at the Siege of Maastricht in the Franco-Dutch War. A fictionalized account of his life by Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras formed the basis for the d'Artagnan Romances of Alexandre Dumas, most famously including The Three Musketeers. The heavily fictionalized version of d'Artagnan featured in Dumas' works and their subsequent screen adaptations is now far more widely known than the real historical figure
1709 Frederick VII Margrave of Baden-Durlach the Margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1677 until his death.
1715 Jean-Baptiste du Casse a French buccaneer, admiral, and colonial administrator who served throughout the Atlantic World during the 17th and 18th centuries. Likely born August 2, 1646, in Saubusse, near Pau , to a Huguenot family, du Casse joined the French merchant marine and served in the East India Company and the slave-trading Compagnie du Sénégal. Later, he joined the French Navy and took part in several victorious expeditions during the War of the League of Augsburg in the West Indies and Spanish South America. During the War of the Spanish Succession, he participated in several key naval battles, including the Battle of Málaga and the siege of Barcelona. For his service, he was made a knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece by King Philip V of Spain. In the midst of these wars, he was Governor of the colony of Saint-Domingue from 1691-1703. He ended his military career at the rank of Lieutenant General of the naval forces and Commander of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis. He died on June 25, 1715 in Bourbon-l'Archambault, Auvergne
1754 Alexandrine Le Normant d'Étiolles born during the "Scenes of Metz", in which the public was scandalised to learn of the adultery of her stepfather-to-be, Louis XV of France.
1767 Georg Philipp Telemann a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist. Almost completely self-taught in music, he became a composer against his family's wishes. After studying in Magdeburg, Zellerfeld, and Hildesheim, Telemann entered the University of Leipzig to study law, but eventually settled on a career in music. He held important positions in Leipzig, Sorau, Eisenach, and Frankfurt before settling in Hamburg in 1721, where he became musical director of the city's five main churches. While Telemann's career prospered, his personal life was always troubled: his first wife died only a few months after their marriage, and his second wife had extramarital affairs and accumulated a large gambling debt before leaving Telemann
1781 Samuel Gotthold Lange a German poet.
1794 Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux a French politician of the Revolutionary period and Freemason.
1798 Thomas Sandby an English draughtsman, watercolour artist, architect and teacher. In 1743 he was appointed private secretary to tthe Duke of Cumberland, who later appointed him Deputy Ranger of Windsor Great Park, where he was responsible for considerable landscaping work
1804 Georges Cadoudal a French politician, and leader of the Chouannerie during the French Revolution. He was named a Marshal of France in 1814
1811 Joseph-Alphonse Esménard a French poet and the brother of the journalist Jean-Baptiste Esménard.
1813 Johann Ewald a German military officer from Hesse-Kassel. After first serving in the Seven Years' War, he was the commander of the Jäger corps of the Hessian Leib Infantry Regiment attached to British forces in the American Revolutionary War. He arrived with his troops, first serving in the Battle of White Plains in October 1776. He saw regular action until his capture at Yorktown in 1781. In 1788, he joined the Danish Army, where he rose to the rank of lieutenant general; he also served as governor general of Holstein during the Napoleonic Wars. Following his American war experiences, he wrote an Essay on Partisan Warfare , a widely read treatise on guerrilla warfare. He also kept a journal during most of his time in North America that has since become a valuable resource for historians of the war
1821 Antoine Bullant a Czech musician and opera composer that worked first in France but primarily in Imperial Russia.
1822 E. T. A. Hoffmann Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann , better known as T. Hoffmann, was a German Romantic author of fantasy and horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann, in which Hoffman appears as the hero. He is also the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which the famous ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two other stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumann's Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmann's character Johannes Kreisler
1827 Christian August Vulpius a German novelist and dramatist. His sister married the noted German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
1830 Ephraim McDowell an American physician and pioneer surgeon. The first person to successfully remove an ovarian tumor, he has been called "the father of ovariotomy" as well as founding father of abdominal surgery
1835 Antoine-Jean Gros both a French history and neoclassical painter.
1838 François-Nicolas-Benoît Haxo a French Army general and military engineer during the French Revolution and First Empire. Haxo became famous in the Siege of Antwerp in 1832. He is the nephew of revolution era General Nicolas Haxo of Étival-Clairefontaine and Saint-Dié-des-Vosges in Lorraine, France
1841 Alexander Macomb (general) the Commanding General of the United States Army from May 29, 1828 to June 25, 1841. Macomb was the field commander at the Battle of Plattsburgh during the War of 1812 and, after the stunning victory, was lauded with praise and styled "The Hero of Plattsburgh" by some of the American press. He was promoted to Major General for his conduct, receiving both the thanks of Congress and a Congressional Gold Medal
1842 Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi Simonde, was a writer born at Geneva. He is best known for his works on French and Italian history, and his economic ideas
1843 Marie Anne Lenormand a French professional fortune-teller of considerable fame during the Napoleonic era. In France Lenormand is considered the greatest cartomancer of all time, highly influential on the wave of French cartomancy that began in the late 18th century
1847 Robert Stopford (Royal Navy officer) a distinguished officer in the Royal Navy whose career spanned over 60 years, from the French Revolutionary Wars to the Syrian War.
1859 Melchior de Marion Brésillac a Catholic prelate and the founder of the Society of African Missions.
1860 Pōtatau Te Wherowhero a Māori warrior, leader of the Waikato iwi , the first Māori King and founder of the Te Wherowhero royal dynasty. He was first known just as Te Wherowhero and took the name Pōtatau after he became king in 1858. As disputes over land grew more severe Te Wherowhero found himself increasingly at odds with the Government and its policies
1861 Abdülmecid I the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839. His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories. Abdülmecid wanted to encourage Ottomanism among the secessionist subject nations and stop the rise of nationalist movements within the empire, but failed to succeed despite trying to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into the Ottoman society with new laws and reforms. He tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War against Russia. In the following Congress of Paris on 30 March 1856, the Ottoman Empire was officially included among the European family of nations. Abdülmecid's biggest achievement was the announcement and application of the Tanzimat reforms which were prepared by his father Mahmud II and effectively started the modernization of Ottoman Empire in 1839. For this achievement, one of the Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire, the March of Abdülmecid, was named after him
1863 Shi Dakai one of the most highly acclaimed leaders in the Taiping Rebellion and a poet.
1863 Johann Karl Ehrenfried Kegel a German agronomist and explorer of the Kamchatka Peninsula. He died in Odessa in 1863
1864 William I of Württemberg the second King of Württemberg from 30 October 1816 until his death.
1866 Alexander von Nordmann a Finnish biologist.