Died on March 11

222 Elagabalus Roman Emperor from 218 to 222. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was Syrian, the second son of Julia Soaemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus. In his early youth he served as a priest of the god Elagabal in the hometown of his mother's family, Emesa. As a private citizen, he was probably named Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus. Upon becoming emperor he took the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. He was called Elagabalus only after his death
222 Julia Soaemias a Syrian noblewoman and the mother of Roman emperor Elagabalus who ruled over the Roman Empire during her son's reign.
638 Sophronius of Jerusalem venerated as a saint in the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Before rising to the primacy of the see of Jerusalem, he was a monk and theologian who was the chief protagonist for orthodox teaching in the doctrinal controversy on the essential nature of Jesus and his volitional acts
824 Óengus of Tallaght held to be the author of the Félire Óengusso and possibly the Martyrology of Tallaght.
859 Eulogius of Córdoba one of the Martyrs of Córdoba. He flourished during the reigns of the Cordovan emirs Abd-er-Rahman II and Muhammad I
1198 Marie of France Countess of Champagne the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine.
1486 Albrecht III Achilles Elector of Brandenburg a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. He received the nickname Achilles because of his knightly qualities. He also ruled the Principality of Ansbach
1514 Donato Bramante an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo. His Tempietto marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome when Alexander VI appointed him to build a sanctuary that allegedly marked the spot where Peter was crucified
1514 Charlotte of Albret a wealthy French noblewoman of the Albret family. She was the sister of King John III of Navarre, and the wife of the notorious Cesare Borgia whom she married in 1499. She was the mother of his only legitimate child, Louise Borgia to whom she acted as regent following the death of Cesare
1575 Matthias Flacius a Lutheran reformer from Istria, present day Croatia.
1576 Juan de Salcedo Not to be confused with Juan Salcedo, Jr.
1602 Emilio de' Cavalieri an Italian composer, producer, organist, diplomat, choreographer and dancer at the end of the Renaissance era. His work, along with that of other composers active in Rome, Florence and Venice, was critical in defining the beginning of the musical Baroque era. A member of the Roman School of composers, he was an influential early composer of monody, and wrote what is usually considered to be the first oratorio
1607 Giovanni Maria Nanino an Italian composer and teacher of the late Renaissance. He was a member of the Roman School of composers, and was the most influential music teacher in Rome in the late 16th century. He was the older brother of composer Giovanni Bernardino Nanino
1646 Stanisław Koniecpolski regarded as one of the most capable military commanders in the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was also a magnate, a royal official , a castellan, a member of the Polish nobility , and the voivode of Sandomierz from 1625 until his death. He led many successful military campaigns against rebelling Cossacks and invading Tatars. From 1618 he held the rank of Field Crown Hetman before becoming the Grand Crown Hetman, the military commander second only to the King, in 1632
1651 Alvise Contarini (diplomat) a patrician and diplomat of the Republic of Venice.
1689 Sambhaji the eldest son of Chhatrapati Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, and his first wife Saibai. He was successor of the realm after his father's death. Sambhaji's rule was largely shaped by the ongoing wars between the Maratha kingdom and the Mughal Empire, as well as other neighbouring powers such as the Siddis, Mysore and the Portuguese in Goa. Sambhaji was captured, tortured, and executed by the Mughals, and succeeded by his brother Rajaram
1722 John Toland a rationalist philosopher and freethinker, and occasional satirist, who wrote numerous books and pamphlets on political philosophy and philosophy of religion, which are early expressions of the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment. Born in Ireland, he was educated at the universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Leiden and Oxford and was influenced by the philosophy of John Locke
1759 John Forbes (British Army officer) a British general in the French and Indian War. He is best known for leading the Forbes Expedition that captured the French outpost at Fort Duquesne and for naming the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania after British Secretary of State William Pitt the Elder
1768 Giovanni Battista Vaccarini an Italian architect, notable for his work in the Sicilian Baroque style in his homeland during the period of massive rebuilding following the earthquake of 1693. Many of his principal works can be found in the area in and around Catania
1772 Johann Georg Reutter an Austrian composer. According to Wyn Jones, in his prime he was "the single most influential musician in Vienna"
1786 Charles Humphreys an American miller and statesman from Haverford, Pennsylvania. He is the son of Daniel Humphreys and Hannah Wynne. He served as a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776. He voted against the Declaration of Independence, since he believed it would inevitably escalate the Revolutionary War and that conflicted with his Quaker beliefs. He withdrew from the Congress soon afterwards
1787 Maximilien Gardel a French ballet dancer and choreographer of German descent. He was the son of Claude Gardel, ballet master to king Stanisław Leszczyński, and elder brother of Pierre Gardel
1787 Elimelech of Lizhensk known after his hometown, Leżajsk near Rzeszów in Poland. He was part of the inner "Chevraya Kadisha" school of the Maggid Rebbe Dov Ber of Mezeritch , who became the decentralised, third generation leadership after the passing of Rebbe Dov Ber in 1772. Their dissemination to new areas of Eastern Europe led the movement's rapid revivalist expansion
1807 Anton Eberl an Austrian composer, teacher and pianist of the Classical period.
1812 Philip James de Loutherbourg a Franco-English painter who became known for his large naval works, his elaborate set designs for London theatres, and his invention of a mechanical theatre called the "Eidophusikon". He had an interest in faith-healing and the occult and was a companion of Cagliostro
1819 Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély a French politician.
1820 Benjamin West an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence. He was the second president of the Royal Academy in London, serving from 1792 to 1805 and 1806 to 1820. He was offered a knighthood by the British Crown, but declined it, believing that he should instead be made a peer
1830 Gérard de Lally-Tollendal a French politician.
1841 Josef Aloys Frölich a German doctor, botanist and entomologist. He is not to be confused with Franz Anton Gottfried Frölich , his son, also an entomologist but specialising in Lepidoptera
1845 Johnny Appleseed an American pioneer nurseryman who introduced apple trees to large parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, as well as the northern counties of present day West Virginia. He became an American legend while still alive, due to his kind, generous ways, his leadership in conservation, and the symbolic importance he attributed to apples. He was also a missionary for The New Church and the inspiration for many museums and historical sites such as the Johnny Appleseed Museum in Urbana, Ohio and the Johnny Appleseed Heritage Center in between Lucas, Ohio and Mifflin, Ohio
1849 Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily a Princess of Naples and Sicily and later Queen of Sardinia as wife of Charles Felix of Sardinia.
1851 George McDuffie the 55th Governor of South Carolina and a member of the United States Senate.
1854 Willard Richards an early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and served as Second Counselor in the First Presidency to church president Brigham Young in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death.
1856 James Beatty (engineer) an Irish railway engineer.
1857 Manuel José Quintana a Spanish poet and man of letters. He was born at Madrid. After completing his studies at Salamanca he was called to the bar
1863 Sir James Outram 1st Baronet an English general who fought in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
1865 Robert Hermann Schomburgk a German-born explorer for Great Britain who carried out geographical, ethnological and botanical studies in South America and the West Indies, and also fulfilled diplomatic missions for Great Britain in the Dominican Republic and Thailand.
1866 Ulysses F. Doubleday a U.S. Representative from New York
1869 Vladimir Odoyevsky a prominent Russian philosopher, writer, music critic, philanthropist and pedagogue. He became known as the "Russian Hoffmann" on account of his keen interest in phantasmagoric tales and musical criticism
1869 Christian August II Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg a claimant of the rulership of the provinces of Slesvig and Holstein, and a fiefholder of Augustenborg and Sønderborg. He was a prince of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg and a cadet-line descendant of the Danish royal House of Oldenburg
1870 Moshoeshoe I born at Menkhoaneng in the northern part of present-day Lesotho. He was the first son of Mokhachane, a minor chief of the Bamokoteli lineage- a branch of the Koena clan. In his early childhood, he helped his father gain power over some other smaller clans. At the age of 34 Moshoeshoe formed his own clan and became a chief. He and his followers settled at the Butha-Buthe Mountain
1874 Charles Sumner an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. An academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War working to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the Freedmen
1883 Alexander Gorchakov a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family. He has an enduring reputation as one of the most influential and respected diplomats of the nineteenth century. From 1863 to 1883 he was chancellor of the Russian Empire
1886 Franz Antoine an Austrian horticulturalist and gardener.
1887 Ludvig Mathias Lindeman a Norwegian composer and organist. He is most noted for compiling Norwegian folk music in his work Ældre og nyere norske Fjeldmelodier
1888 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen a German mayor and cooperative pioneer. Several credit union systems and cooperative banks have been named after Raiffeisen, who pioneered rural credit unions
1889 Karel Dežman a Carniolan liberal politician and natural scientist. He was one of the most prominent personalities of the political, cultural, and scientific developments in the 19th century Duchy of Carniola. He is considered one of the fathers of modern archeology in what is today Slovenia. He also made important contributions in botany, zoology, mineralogy, geology and mineralogy. He was the first director of the Provincial Museum of Carniola, now the National Museum of Slovenia. Due to his switch from Slovene liberal nationalism to Austrian centralism and pro-German cultural stances, he became a symbol of national renegadism
1890 Johann Gildemeister a German Orientalist born in Kröpelin.
1892 Archibald Scott Couper a Scottish chemist who proposed an early theory of chemical structure and bonding. He developed the concepts of tetravalent carbon atoms linking together to form large molecules, and that the bonding order of the atoms in a molecule can be determined from chemical evidence
1895 Ivane Bagration of Mukhrani a Georgian nobleman of the House of Mukhrani, and general in the Imperial Russian service. He was one of the biggest Georgian landowners of that time and a modernizer of winemaking industry