Born on March 12

1270 Charles Count of Valois the fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois. In 1284, he was created Count of Valois by his father and, in 1290, received the title of Count of Anjou from his marriage to Margaret of Anjou
1312 John de Vere 7th Earl of Oxford the nephew and heir of Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford who succeeded as Earl of Oxford in 1331, after his uncle died without issue.
1336 Edward Duke of Guelders the youngest son of Rainald II of Guelders and his second wife, Eleanor of Woodstock, daughter of Edward II of England.
1386 Ashikaga Yoshimochi the 4th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1394 to 1423 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshimochi was the son of the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
1479 Giuliano de' Medici Duke of Nemours an Italian nobleman, the third son of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
1515 Caspar Othmayr a German Protestant priest, theologian and composer.
1607 Paul Gerhardt a German hymn writer.
1613 André Le Nôtre a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. Most notably, he was the landscape architect who made the design and construction for the park of the Palace of Versailles, and his work represents the height of the French formal garden style, or jardin à la française
1626 John Aubrey an English antiquary, natural philosopher and writer. He is perhaps best known as the author of the Brief Lives, his collection of short biographical pieces. He was a pioneer archaeologist, who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, and who is particularly noted as the discoverer of the Avebury henge monument. The Aubrey holes at Stonehenge are named after him, although there is considerable doubt as to whether the holes that he observed are those that currently bear the name. He was also a pioneer folklorist, collecting together a miscellany of material on customs, traditions and beliefs under the title "Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme". He set out to compile county histories of both Wiltshire and Surrey, although both projects remained unfinished. His "Interpretation of Villare Anglicanum" was the first attempt to compile a full-length study of English place-names. He had wider interests in applied mathematics and astronomy, and was friendly with many of the greatest scientists of the day
1637 Anne Hyde Duchess of York and of Albany as the first wife of the future King James II of England. Originally Anglican, her father was a lawyer. Anne married James in 1660 after she became pregnant by him, but James is said to have promised to marry her in 1659. The two first met in the Netherlands while Anne was living in the household of James' sister Mary. James and Anne had eight children, but six died in early childhood. The two who survived to adulthood were Lady Mary, who succeeded her father after his deposition during the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and Lady Anne, who succeeded her brother-in-law and became the first monarch of Great Britain
1647 Victor-Maurice comte de Broglie a French soldier and general.
1660 Zofia Czarnkowska Opalińska the daughter of Adam Uriel Czarnkowski and Theresa Zaleska. She was also the grandmother of Marie Leszczynska and Anne Leszczynska
1664 Moritz Wilhelm Duke of Saxe-Zeitz a duke of Saxe-Zeitz and member of the House of Wettin.
1683 John Theophilus Desaguliers a French-born British natural philosopher, clergyman, engineer and freemason who was elected to the Royal Society in 1714 as experimental assistant to Isaac Newton. He had studied at Oxford and later popularized Newtonian theories and their practical applications in public lectures. Desaguliers’s most important patron was James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos. As a Freemason, Desaguliers was instrumental in the establishment of the first Grand Lodge formed in London in 1717 and served as their third Grand Master
1685 George Berkeley an Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism". This theory denies the existence of material substance and instead contends that familiar objects like tables and chairs are only ideas in the minds of perceivers, and as a result cannot exist without being perceived. Berkeley is also known for his critique of abstraction, an important premise in his argument for immaterialism
1701 Johann Friedrich Cotta (theologian) a German theologian.
1706 Johan Pasch a Swedish painter. He was court painter to the Swedish court from 1748 onwards and hovintendent from 1758 onwards. He was the brother of Lorens Pasch the Elder and uncle to Lorens Pasch the Younger and Ulrika Pasch, all three of whom were also painters
1710 Thomas Arne an English composer, best known for the patriotic song Rule, Britannia!. He also wrote a version of God Save the King, which became the British national anthem, and the song A-Hunting We Will Arne was the leading British theatre composer of the 18th century, working at Drury Lane and Covent Garden
1713 Johann Adolph Hass a German clavichord and harpsichord maker, the son of Hieronymus Albrecht Hass, who was also a clavier maker. He should not be confused with the German composer Johann Adolph Hasse
1718 Joseph Damer 1st Earl of Dorchester a wealthy landowner particularly associated with the reshaping of Milton Abbey and the creation of the village of Milton Abbas in Dorset, south-west England.
1732 Joseph Gaertner a German botanist, best known for his work on seeds, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum.
1735 François-Emmanuel Guignard comte de Saint-Priest a French politician and diplomat during the Ancien Régime and French Revolution.
1750 Barlaam (Shyshatsky) defroched Archbishop of Mogilev and Vitebsk of the Russian Orthodox Church.
1753 Justus Christian Loder a German anatomist and surgeon who was a native of Riga.
1753 Jean Denis comte Lanjuinais a French politician, lawyer, jurist, journalist, and historian.
1766 Claudius Buchanan a Scottish theologian, an ordained minister of the Church of England, and an extremely 'low church' missionary for the Church Missionary Society.
1769 Sir Archibald Campbell 1st Baronet an officer of the British Army. From 1824 to 1826, Gen. Campbell commanded the British forces in the First Anglo-Burmese War, the longest and most expensive war in British Indian history, that gave the British control of Assam, Manipur, Cachar, Jaintia, Arakan and Tenasserim. He became known as the "Hero of Ava". From 1831 to 1837, he was the administrator of the colony of New Brunswick, Canada
1770 François Gérard a French painter born in Rome, where his father occupied a post in the house of the French ambassador. His mother was Italian. As a baron of the Empire he is sometimes referred to as Baron Gérard
1774 Johann Caspar Horner a Swiss physicist, mathematician and astronomer.
1776 Lady Hester Stanhope a British socialite, adventurer and traveler. Her archaeological expedition to Ashkelon in 1815 is considered the first modern excavation in the history of Holy Land archeology. Her use of a medieval Italian document is described as "one of the earliest uses of textual sources by field archaeologists"
1781 Frederica of Baden Queen consort of Sweden from 1797 to 1809. Daughter of Karl Ludwig of Baden and Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt, she was the younger sister of Empress Elisabeth Alexeievna , wife of Tsar Alexander I of Russia
1784 William Buckland an English theologian who became Dean of Westminster. He was also a geologist and palaeontologist, writing the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, which he named Megalosaurus. His work proving that Kirkdale Cave had been a prehistoric hyena den, for which he was awarded the Copley Medal, was praised as an example of how scientific analysis could reconstruct events from the distant past. He was a pioneer in the use of fossilised faeces, for which he coined the term coprolites, to reconstruct ancient ecosystems
1788 David d'Angers a French sculptor and medallist. He adopted the name David d'Angers, following his entry into the studio of the painter Jacques-Louis David in 1809 as a way of both expressing his patrimony and distinguishing himself from the master painter
1790 James Bannerman a lieutenant and acting governor of the Gold Coast from 4 December 1850 to 14 October 1851.
1790 John Frederic Daniell an English chemist and physicist.
1795 William Lyon Mackenzie a Scottish-born Canadian and American journalist and politician. He was the first mayor of Toronto, Upper Canada and was a leader during the 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion. He was also a member of the Orange Order in Canada
1795 George Tyler Wood an American military officer and politician who served as the second Governor of Texas.
1806 Jane Pierce Means Appleton Pierce , wife of U.S. President Franklin Pierce, was First Lady of the United States from 1853 to 1857
1807 Vladimir Pavlovich Titov a Russian writer, statesman, diplomat. As a writer he is best known for the novella The Remote House on Vasilyevsky Street , which was influenced by the writings of Aleksandr Pushkin
1807 James Abbott (Indian Army officer) a British army officer and administrator in colonial India.The Pakistani city of Abbottabad was founded and named by him.
1812 Ignacio Comonfort a Mexican politician and soldier. He became President of Mexico in 1855 after a revolt based in Ayutla overthrew Santa Anna
1815 Louis-Jules Trochu a French military leader and politician. He served as President of the Government of National Defense—France's de facto head of state—from 4 September 1870 until his resignation on 22 January 1871
1821 John Abbott the third Prime Minister of Canada. He served in the office for seventeen months, from June 16, 1891 to November 24, 1892
1821 Luitpold Prince Regent of Bavaria the de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, King Ludwig II and King Otto.
1824 Gustav Kirchhoff a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
1827 William R. Terry a businessman, politician, prison superintendent and a brigadier general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
1828 Benjamin Leigh Smith a British yachtsman and explorer.
1831 Clement Studebaker an American wagon and carriage manufacturer. With his brother Henry, he co-founded the H & C Studebaker Company, precursor of the Studebaker Corporation, which built Pennsylvania-German Conestoga wagons and carriages during his lifetime, and automobiles after his death, in South Bend, Indiana
1831 Joseph Gérard a French Catholic missionary who chiefly worked among the Basotho people of modern day Lesotho and the Free State province of South Africa. He was born in Bouxières-aux-Chênes, in the Diocese of Nancy and received his religious training from the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, whom he joined at the age of twenty. He wasn't particularly gifted academically, but was quick at learning languages, which would later help him in learning the Zulu and Sesotho languages he used for his missionary work. Gérard moved to South Africa in 1853, and never returned to his home country again
1832 Charles Friedel a French chemist and mineralogist. A native of Strasbourg, France, he was a student of Louis Pasteur at the Sorbonne. In 1876, he became a professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the Sorbonne