Died on March 12

295 Maximilian (martyr) a Christian saint whose feast day is observed on 12 March. He is a martyr of the Christian Church from the third century AD, born in AD 274. Because his father Fabius Victor was a soldier in the Roman army, Maximilian was obliged to join at the age of 21. Brought before the proconsul of Numidia Cassius Dion, he refused, stating that, as a Christian, he could not serve in the military. This led to his martyrdom by beheading on 12 March, AD 295, at the City of Thavaste , North Africa. He is noted as an early conscientious objector; the 1970s anti-Vietnam War clergy group Order of Maximilian took their name from him
417 Pope Innocent I Pope from 401 to his death in 417.
604 Pope Gregory I Pope from 3 September 590 to his death in 604. Gregory is well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope. He is also known as Gregory the Dialogist in Eastern Christianity because of his Dialogues. For this reason, English translations of Eastern texts will sometimes list him as "Gregory Dialogus"
817 Theophanes the Confessor a member of the Byzantine aristocracy, who became a monk and chronicler. He is venerated on March 12 in the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church
864 Liudolf Duke of Saxony a Saxon count, son of Count Brun and his wife, Gisla von Verla; later authors called him Duke of the Eastern Saxons and Count of Eastphalia. Liudolf had extended possessions in eastern Saxony, and was a leader in the wars of King Louis the German against Normans and Slavs. The ruling Liudolfing House, also known as the Ottonian dynasty, is named after him; he is its oldest verified member
996 Odo I Count of Blois the son of Theobald I of Blois and Luitgard, daughter of Herbert II of Vermandois. He received the title of count palatine, which was traditional in his family, from King Lothair of West Francia
1022 Symeon the New Theologian a Byzantine Christian monk and poet who was the last of three saints canonized by the Eastern Orthodox church and given the title of "Theologian". "Theologian" was not applied to Symeon in the modern academic sense of theological study, but to recognize someone who spoke from personal experience of the vision of God. One of his principal teachings was that humans could and should experience theoria
1160 Al-Muqtafi the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1136 to 1160. The continued disunion and contests between Seljuk Turks afforded al-Muqtafi opportunity of not only maintaining his authority in Baghdad, but also extending it throughout Iraq
1289 Demetrius II of Georgia king of Georgia in 1270–1289.
1316 Stefan Dragutin of Serbia a 13th and 14th-century Serb monarch, the King of Serbia from 1276 to 1282 and King of Syrmia from 1282 to 1316.
1336 Guy II Marquis of Namur Count of Namur from 1335 to 1336.
1356 Rudolf I Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg a member of the House of Ascania. He was Duke, Prince-Elector of Saxony and Arch-Reichsmarschall of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1298 until his death
1364 Ranulf Higden an English chronicler and a Benedictine monk of the monastery of Werburgh in Chester. He is believed to have been born in the West of England, took the monastic vow , at Chester in 1299, and seems to have travelled over the north of England
1374 Emperor Go-Kōgon the 4th of the Ashikaga Pretenders during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1352 through 1371
1463 George Douglas 4th Earl of Angus a Scottish nobleman. He was the son of William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus and Margaret Hay of Yester. Known as the Great Earl of Angus, he succeeded to the Earldom following the death of his childless brother James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Angus in 1446. He was to become the first Red Chief of Douglas
1468 Astorre II Manfredi lord of Imola from 1439 and of Faenza from 1443.
1502 Francesco Laurana a Dalmatian-born sculptor and medallist. He is considered both a Croatian and an Italian sculptor
1507 Cesare Borgia an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal. He was the illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei. He was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia; Giovanni Borgia , Duke of Gandia; and Gioffre Borgia , Prince of Squillace. He was half-brother to Don Pedro Luis de Borja and Girolama de Borja, children of unknown mothers
1510 Mihnea cel Rău Voivode of Wallachia from 1508 to 1509, having replaced his first cousin Radu cel Mare. During his reign, he ruled alongside his son Mircea III Dracul in the year 1509. Unpopular among the boyars, he was overthrown with Ottoman assistance, prompting him to take refuge in Transylvania - where he was to be murdered in front of the Sibiu Cathedral, being buried inside the church
1539 Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl of Wiltshire an English diplomat and politician in the Tudor era. He was born at the family home, Hever Castle, Kent, which had been purchased by his grandfather Geoffrey Boleyn, who was a wealthy mercer. He was buried at Peter's parish church in the village of Hever. His parents were Sir William Boleyn and Lady Margaret Butler. He was the father of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII of England. As such, he was the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I
1605 Alexander II of Kakheti a king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1574 to 1605. In spite of a precarious international situation, he managed to retain relative economic stability in his kingdom and tried to establish contacts with the Tsardom of Russia. Alexander fell victim to the Iran-sponsored coup led by his own son, Constantine I
1608 Kōriki Kiyonaga a Japanese daimyo during the Azuchi-Momoyama period and Edo periods. A native of Mikawa Province, Kiyonaga served the Tokugawa clan during its battles, until 1600
1619 Richard Burbage an English stage actor and theatre owner. He was the younger brother of Cuthbert Burbage. They were both actors in drama
1637 Cornelius a Lapide a Flemish Jesuit and exegete.
1648 Tirso de Molina a Spanish Baroque dramatist, a poet and a Roman Catholic monk.
1669 Cornelis Jan Witsen Witsen was a counsellor and mayor of the city of Amsterdam. He was the father of Nicolaes Witsen and the son of Jan Witsz and Grietje Claes
1673 Margaret Theresa of Spain Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Archduchess consort of Austria, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia. She was the daughter of King Philip IV of Spain and his second wife Mariana of Austria. She was the elder sister of Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburgs. She is the central figure in the famous Las Meninas by Diego Velázquez, and subject of many of his later paintings
1681 Frans van Mieris the Elder a Dutch Golden Age genre and portrait painter. The leading member of a Leiden family of painters, his sons Jan and Willem and his grandson Frans van Mieris the Younger were also accomplished genre painters
1699 Peder Griffenfeld a Danish statesman.
1723 Anne Christine of Sulzbach Princess of Piedmont a princess of the Bavarian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire and first wife of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont. She died during childbirth at the age of 19
1737 Charles Alexander Duke of Württemberg a Württemberg noble from 1698 who governed the Kingdom of Serbia as regent from 1720 until 1733, when he assumed the position of Duke of Württemberg, which he had held until his death.
1749 Alessandro Magnasco an Italian late-Baroque painter active mostly in Milan and Genoa. He is best known for stylized, fantastic, often phantasmagoric genre or landscape scenes
1787 Vicente Antonio García de la Huerta a Spanish dramatist, educated at Salamanca. At Madrid he soon attracted attention by his literary arrogance and handsome person, and at an early age became chief of the National Library, a post from which he was dismissed owing to the intrigues of his numerous enemies. The publication of his unsatisfactory collection of Spanish plays entitled Theatro Hespañol exposed him to severe censures, which appear to have affected his reason. He died at Madrid, without carrying into effect his avowed intention of reviving the national drama. His Agamemnon vengado derives from Sophocles, his faire is translated from Voltaire, and even his once famous Raquel, though Spanish in subject, is classic in form
1790 András Hadik a Hungarian nobleman and Field Marshal of the Habsburg Army. He was Governor of Galicia and Lodomeria from January 1774 to June 1774, and the father of Karl Joseph Hadik von Futak. He is famous for capturing the Prussian capital Berlin during the Seven Years' War
1808 Jean Gaspard de Vence a French privateer, admiral and Maritime Prefect of Toulon.
1815 Zhang Dapeng a Chinese martyr.
1820 Alexander Mackenzie (explorer) a Scottish explorer. He is known for his overland crossing of what is now Canada to reach the Pacific Ocean in 1793. This was the first east to west crossing of North America north of Mexico and predated the Lewis and Clark expedition by 10 years
1825 Maximin Isnard a dealer in perfumery at Draguignan when he was elected deputy for the département of the Var to the Legislative Assembly, where he joined the Girondists.
1832 Friedrich Kuhlau a German-born Danish composer during the Classical and Romantic periods. He was a central figure of the Danish Golden Age and is immortalized in Danish cultural history through his music for Elves' Hill, the first true work of Danish National Romanticism and a concealed tribute to the absolute monarchy. To this day it is his version of this melody which is the definitive arrangement
1834 Karl Wilhelm Feuerbach a German geometer and the son of legal scholar Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, and the brother of philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach. After receiving his doctorate at age 22, he became a professor of mathematics at the Gymnasium at Erlangen. In 1822 he wrote a small book on mathematics noted mainly for a theorem on the nine-point circle, which is now known as Feuerbach's theorem. In 1827 he introduced homogeneous coordinates, independently of Möbius
1844 Carl Bernhard von Trinius a German-born botanist and physician.
1848 Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Elder a German history painter born in Mainz. He was an older brother to prehistorian Ludwig Lindenschmit , and father to history painter Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Younger
1851 Mizuno Tadakuni a daimyō during late-Edo period Japan, who later served as chief senior councilor in service to the Tokugawa Shogunate. He is remembered for having instituted the Tenpo Reform
1851 Jan Barszczewski Polish and Belarusian writer, poet and editor. He wrote both in Belarusian and Polish languages
1853 Mathieu Orfila a Spanish-born French toxicologist and chemist, the founder of the science of toxicology.
1857 Johann Jakob Heckel an Austrian taxidermist, zoologist, and ichthyologist from Mannheim in the Electoral Palatinate.
1858 William James Blacklock an English landscape painter, painting scenery in Cumbria, the Lake District and the Scottish Borders.
1862 Gustave Vaëz a Belgian playwright, librettist and translator of opera librettos. Born in Brussels, he studied law and earned a doctorate at the State University of Leuven. Since he had no desire to work as a lawyer, he devoted himself to a career as a playwright. He published a large number of plays. His first plays were staged from 1829 to 1834 in Brussels, which he left for Paris to work with librettist Alphonse Royer. Operas where Vaëz was involved as a librettist and translator are Lucia di Lammermoor , La favorite and Rita, ou Le mari battu by Gaetano Donizetti , and Jérusalem by Giuseppe Verdi. He died in Paris on 12 March 1862
1868 Ernest Doudart de Lagrée the leader of the French Mekong Expedition of 1866-1868.
1868 Christian Friedrich Heinrich Wimmer a German botanist and educator who was a native of Breslau.