March 12 events in history

538 Vitiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Byzantine general, Belisarius
1550 Several hundred Spanish and indigenous troops under the command of Pedro de Valdivia defeat an army of 60,000 Mapuche at the Battle of Penco during the Arauco War in present-day Chile
1622 Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier, founders of the Jesuits, are canonized as saints by the Catholic Church
1689 The Williamite War in Ireland begins
1811 Peninsular War: A day after a successful rear guard action, French Marshal Michel Ney once again successfully delayed the pursuing Anglo-Portuguese force at the Battle of Redinha
1864 American Civil War: The Red River Campaign begins as a US Navy fleet of 13 Ironclads and 7 Gunboats and other support ships enter the Red River
1868 Henry O'Farrell attempts to assassinate Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh
1881 Andrew Watson makes his Scotland debut as the world's first black international football player and captain
1885 Tonkin Campaign: France captures the citadel of Bắc Ninh
1894 Coca-Cola is bottled and sold for the first time in Vicksburg, Mississippi, by local soda fountain operator Joseph Biedenharn
1910 Greek cruiser Georgios Averof is launched at Livorno
1912 The Girl Guides (later renamed the Girl Scouts of the USA) are founded in the United States
1913 Canberra Day: The future capital of Australia is officially named Canberra. (Melbourne remains temporary capital until 1927 while the new capital is still under construction.)
1918 Moscow becomes the capital of Russia again after Saint Petersburg held this status for 215 years
1921 İstiklal Marşı was adopted in TBMM(Turkish grand national assembly)
1922 Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan formed The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
1928 In California, the St. Francis Dam fails; the resulting floods kill over 600 people
1930 Mahatma Gandhi leads a 200-mile march, known as the Salt March, to the sea in defiance of British opposition, to protest the British monopoly on salt
1933 Great Depression: Franklin D. Roosevelt addresses the nation for the first time as President of the United States. This is also the first of his "fireside chats"
1934 Konstantin Päts and General Johan Laidoner stage a coup in Estonia, and ban all political parties
1938 Anschluss: German troops occupy Austria
1940 Winter War: Finland signs the Moscow Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, ceding almost all of Finnish Karelia. Finnish troops and the remaining population are immediately evacuated
1947 The Truman Doctrine is proclaimed to help stem the spread of Communism
1950 The Llandow air disaster occurs near Sigingstone, Wales, in which 80 people die when their aircraft crashed, making it the world's deadliest air disaster at the time
1961 First Winter Ascent of the Eiger north face
1967 Suharto takes over from Sukarno to become Acting President of Indonesia
1968 Mauritius achieves independence from the United Kingdom
1971 The March 12 Memorandum is sent to the Demirel government of Turkey and the government resigns
1992 Mauritius becomes a republic while remaining a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
1993 Several bombs explode in Bombay (Mumbai), India, killing about 300 and injuring hundreds more
1993 North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea says that it plans to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and refuses to allow inspectors access to its nuclear sites
1993 The Blizzard of 1993 – Snow begins to fall across the eastern portion of the US with tornadoes, thunder snow storms, high winds and record low temperatures. The storm lasts for 30 hours
1993 Janet Reno was sworn in as the United States' first female attorney general
1994 The Church of England ordains its first female priests
1999 Former Warsaw Pact members the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland join NATO
2003 Zoran Đinđić, Prime Minister of Serbia, is assassinated in Belgrade
2004 The President of South Korea, Roh Moo-hyun, is impeached by its National Assembly: the first such impeachment in the nation's history
2005 Karolos Papoulias becomes President of Greece
2009 Financier Bernard Madoff pleads guilty in New York to scamming $18 billion, the largest in Wall Street history
2011 A reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant melts and explodes and releases radioactivity into the atmosphere a day after Japan's earthquake
2014 An explosion in the New York City neighborhood of East Harlem kills 8 and injures 70 others