Born on March 14

388 Maternus Cynegius a praetorian prefect of the East and consul at the end of the 4th century, best known for destroying some of the most sacred sites of Hellenic religion.
1271 Stephen I Duke of Bavaria duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 until 1310 as co-regnant of his older brothers Otto III and Louis III.
1471 Thomas Malory an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur. Since the late nineteenth century he has generally been identified as Sir Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel in Warwickshire, a knight, land-owner and Member of Parliament. Previously, it was suggested by the antiquary John Leland, as well as John Bale, that he was Welsh. Occasionally, other candidates are put forward for authorship of Le Morte d'Arthur, but the supporting evidence for their claim has been described as "no more than circumstantial"
1638 Johann Georg Gichtel a German mystic and religious leader who was a critic of Lutheranism. His followers ultimately separated from this faith
1665 Giuseppe Crespi an Italian late Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. His eclectic output includes religious paintings and portraits, but he is now most famous for his genre paintings
1677 Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg-Schwedt a Margrave of Brandenburg and a military officer of Brandenburg-Prussia's Hohenzollern dynasty. The title "Margrave of Brandenburg" was given to princes of the Prussian Royal House and did not express a territorial or allodial status. He is best known as the recipient of Johann Sebastian Bach's Brandenburg concertos
1681 Georg Philipp Telemann a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist. Almost completely self-taught in music, he became a composer against his family's wishes. After studying in Magdeburg, Zellerfeld, and Hildesheim, Telemann entered the University of Leipzig to study law, but eventually settled on a career in music. He held important positions in Leipzig, Sorau, Eisenach, and Frankfurt before settling in Hamburg in 1721, where he became musical director of the city's five main churches. While Telemann's career prospered, his personal life was always troubled: his first wife died only a few months after their marriage, and his second wife had extramarital affairs and accumulated a large gambling debt before leaving Telemann
1692 Pieter van Musschenbroek a Dutch scientist. He was a professor in Duisburg, Utrecht, and Leiden, where he held positions in mathematics, philosophy, medicine, and astrology. He is credited with the invention of the first capacitor in 1746: the Leyden jar. He performed pioneering work on the buckling of compressed struts. Musschenbroek was also one of the first scientists to provide detailed descriptions of testing machines for tension, compression, and flexure testing. An early example of a problem in dynamic plasticity was described in the 1739 paper
1709 Gabriel Bonnot de Mably a French philosopher and writer. For a short time he served in the diplomatic corps
1719 Mary Hamilton (lady in waiting) the lady in waiting of Empress Catherine I of Russia and a royal mistress of Tsar Peter the Great of Russia. She was executed for abortion, infanticide, and theft and slander of Empress Catherine. She is pointed out as one of the possible inspirations for the song Mary Hamilton
1727 Johann Gottlieb Goldberg a German virtuoso harpsichordist, organist, and composer of the late Baroque and early Classical period. He is best known for lending his name, as the probable original performer, to the renowned Goldberg Variations of J.S. Bach
1747 Alexander Bezborodko the Grand Chancellor of Russia and chief architect of Catherine the Great's foreign policy after the death of Nikita Panin.
1771 Józef Chłopicki a Polish general who was involved in fighting in Europe at the time of Napoleon and later.
1782 Thomas Hart Benton (politician) a U.S. Senator from Missouri and a staunch advocate of westward expansion of the United States. He served in the Senate from 1821 to 1851, becoming the first member of that body to serve five terms. Benton was an architect and champion of westward expansion by the United States, a cause that became known as Manifest Destiny
1790 Ludwig Emil Grimm a German painter, art professor, etcher and copper engraver. His brothers were the well-known folklorists Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
1794 Józef Bem a Polish general, an Ottoman pasha and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined with other European nationalisms. Like Tadeusz Kościuszko and Jan Henryk Dąbrowski , Bem fought outside Poland's borders for the future of Poland; anywhere his leadership and military skills were needed
1800 Marie Melchior Joseph Théodore de Lagrené a French legislator and diplomat, who hailed from an old family from Picardie. He joined the French diplomatic service at a young age and served in the foreign ministry under Mathieu de Montmorency and accompanied him to the Congress of Verona in 1822. The following year, Lagrené became an envoy at the French embassy in Russia and he subsequently fulfilled the same function at the French embassy in Constantinople. In 1828, he obtained the rank of ambassador while serving at the French embassy in Madrid. Lagrené remained in office after the establishment of the July Monarchy in 1830 and held a number of prominent position in the French foreign service
1801 Kristjan Jaak Peterson an Estonian poet, commonly regarded as a herald of Estonian national literature and the founder of modern Estonian poetry. His literary career was cut short by the tuberculosis that killed him at the age of 21. His birthday on March 14 is celebrated in Estonia as the Mother Tongue Day
1804 Johann Strauss I an Austrian Romantic composer. He was famous for his waltzes, and he popularized them alongside Joseph Lanner, thereby setting the foundations for his sons to carry on his musical dynasty. His most famous piece is the Radetzky March
1805 Eduard Clam-Gallas an Austrian General. He was the eldest son of Count Christian Christoph Clam-Gallas , patron of Beethoven, and Countess Josephine Clary-Aldringen
1807 Josephine of Leuchtenberg Queen consort of Sweden and Norway as the wife of King Oscar She was known as Queen Josefina, and was regarded to be politically active during the reign of her spouse. She acted as his political adviser and actively participated in state affairs. She was particularly active within the laws of religion in Sweden and Norway, and is attributed to have introduced more liberal laws regarding religion
1808 Narcissa Whitman an American missionary in the Oregon Country of what would become the state of Washington. Along with Eliza Hart Spalding , she was the first European-American woman to cross the Rocky Mountains in 1836 on her way to found the Protestant Whitman Mission with husband Marcus Whitman near modern day Walla Walla, Washington
1813 Joseph P. Bradley an American jurist best known for his service on the United States Supreme Court, and on the Electoral Commission that decided the disputed 1876 presidential election.
1816 William Marsh Rice an American businessman who bequeathed his fortune to found Rice University in Houston, Texas.
1816 Montgomery Dent Corse an American banker, gold prospector, and soldier who served as a general in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. He commanded the 17th Virginia Infantry and then Corse's Brigade of Pickett's Division in the Army of Northern Virginia, and served in several of that army's most important battles
1819 Erik Edlund a Swedish physicist. His scientific research was confined chiefly to the theory of electricity. He helped secure the introduction of weather stations to Sweden
1820 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy king of Sardinia from 1849 until, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland
1821 Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae a Danish archaeologist, historian and politician, who was the second director of the National Museum of Denmark. He played a key role in the foundation of scientific archaeology. Worsaae was the first to excavate and use stratigraphy to prove J. Thomsen's sequence of the Three-age system: Stone, Bronze, Iron. He was also a pioneer in the development of paleobotany through his excavation work in the peat bogs of Jutland. Worsaae served as Kultus Minister of Denmark for Christen Andreas Fonnesbech from 1874 to 1875
1822 Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies the Empress consort of Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil, who reigned from 1831 to 1889. Born a Princess of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in present-day southern Italy, she was the daughter of King Don Francesco I of the Italian branch of the House of Bourbon and his wife Maria Isabel. It was long believed by historians that the Princess was raised in an ultra-conservative, intolerant atmosphere which resulted in a timid and unassertive character in public and an ability to be contented with very little materially or emotionally. Recent studies revealed a more complex character, who despite having respected the social norms of the era, was able to assert a limited independence due to her strongly opinionated personality as well as her interest in learning, sciences and culture
1823 Józef Simmler a Polish painter known for his classical style and his Polish subjects.
1823 Théodore de Banville a French poet and writer.
1829 Pierre-Hector Coullié a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and was Archbishop of Lyon.
1832 Sir James Fergusson 6th Baronet a British soldier, Conservative politician and colonial administrator.
1833 Lucy Hobbs Taylor the first American woman to graduate from dental school.
1833 Frederic Shields a British artist, illustrator and designer closely associated with the Pre-Raphaelites through Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown.
1835 Giovanni Schiaparelli an Italian astronomer and science historian.
1836 Jules Joseph Lefebvre a French figure painter, educator and theorist.
1837 Charles Ammi Cutter an important figure in the history of American library science.
1844 Arthur O'Shaughnessy a British poet and herpetologist of Irish descent, born in London. He is most remembered for his ode beginning with the words "We are the music makers, /And we are the dreamers of dreams" which has been set to music several times
1844 Umberto I of Italy the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his death.
1848 Konstantin Andreev a Russian mathematician, best known for his work on geometry, especially projective geometry. He was one of the founders of the Kharkov Mathematical Society. This society is one of the early mathematics societies in Russia and was founded in 1879
1852 Albert Nikolayevitch Benois a talented Russian water-colorist. The Benois family produced many talented artists over several generations. Albert was the elder son of architect Nicholas Benois, brother of artist and theatrical designer Alexandre Benois, uncle of the painter Zinaida Serebriakova, and great-uncle of Sir Peter Ustinov. Albert's daughter Maria married the Russian composer, pianist and conductor, Nikolay Tcherepnin. Their son Alexander Tcherepnin was also a composer and pianist of note. His son Nikolai was married to the opera singer Maria Kuznetsova
1853 Ferdinand Hodler one of the best-known Swiss painters of the nineteenth century. His early works were portraits, landscapes, and genre paintings in a realistic style. Later, he adopted a personal form of symbolism he called Parallelism
1853 Max Saenger a German obstetrician and gynecologist who was a native of Bayreuth.
1854 Thomas R. Marshall an American Democratic politician who served as the 28th Vice President of the United States under Woodrow Wilson. A prominent lawyer in Indiana, he became an active and well known member of the Indiana Democratic Party by stumping across the state for other candidates and organizing party rallies that later helped him win election as the 27th Governor of Indiana. In office, he proposed a controversial and progressive state constitution and pressed for other progressive era reforms. The Republican minority used the state courts to block the attempt to change the constitution
1854 Paul Ehrlich a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy. He invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different type of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases
1854 Alexandru Macedonski a Wallachian-born Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades. A forerunner of local modernist literature, he is the first local author to have used free verse, and claimed by some to have been the first in modern European literature. Within the framework of Romanian literature, Macedonski is seen by critics as second only to national poet Mihai Eminescu; as leader of a cosmopolitan and aestheticist trend formed around his Literatorul journal, he was diametrically opposed to the inward-looking traditionalism of Eminescu and his school
1854 John Lane (publisher) a British publisher.
1855 Claude Bowes-Lyon 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne a landowner, the father of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II.
1859 Adolf Bertram archbishop of Breslau and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.