Died on March 15

44 Julius Caesar a Roman general, statesman, Consul, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative ruling class within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain
220 Cao Cao a warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid the foundations for what was to become the state of Cao Wei and was posthumously honoured as "Emperor Wu of Wei". Although he is often portrayed as a cruel and merciless tyrant, Cao Cao has also been praised as a brilliant ruler and military genius who treated his subordinates like his family. He was also skilled in poetry and martial arts and wrote many war journals
931 Pope Stephen VII Pope from February 929 to his death in 931. A candidate of the infamous Marozia, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum
963 Romanos II a Byzantine Emperor. He succeeded his father Constantine VII in 959 at the age of twenty-one and died suddenly in 963
1086 Richilde Countess of Hainaut Mons and Hainaut. She was also Countess and Regent of Flanders
1190 Isabella of Hainault Queen of France as the first wife of King Philip II.
1311 Walter V Count of Brienne born in Brienne-le-Château, Aube, Champagne, France. He was the son of Hugh, Count of Brienne and Lecce, and Isabella de la Roche, daughter of Guy I de la Roche, Duke of Athens. He was the heir of the Brienne claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem and of Cyprus, as well as to Taranto and Sicily
1392 Eberhard II Count of Württemberg called "der Greiner" , Count of Württemberg from 1344 until 1392.
1494 Lamberto Lord of Monaco Lord of Monaco from 16 March 1458. He was married to his cousin Claudine Grimaldi in 1465 to secure the Grimaldi inheritance of Monaco that by the small state's constitution could only pass to male heirs. Lamberto was of the branch of the Grimaldi family which had settled in Antibes while Claudia was of the more powerful Monaco branch
1521 John II Duke of Cleves a son of John I, Duke of Cleves and Elizabeth of Nevers. He ruled Cleves from 1481 to his death in 1521. He was called "The Babymaker" since he fathered sixty-three illegitimate children before his marriage with Mathilde of Hesse in 1490. She was the daughter of Henry III, Landgrave of Upper Hesse and his wife Anna of Katzenelnbogen
1526 Charles Somerset 1st Earl of Worcester the legitimised bastard son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset by his mistress Joan Hill.
1536 Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
1575 Annibale Padovano an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance Venetian School. He was one of the earliest developers of the keyboard toccata
1587 Caspar Olevian a significant German Reformed theologian during the Protestant Reformation and along with Zacharius Ursinus was said to be co-author of the Heidelberg Catechism. That theory of authorship has been questioned by some modern scholarship
1594 Casiodoro de Reina a Lutheran theologian who translated the Bible into Spanish.
1628 John Bull (composer) an English composer, musician and organ builder. He was a renowned keyboard performer of the virginalist school and most of his compositions were written for this medium
1632 Maurice Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel in the Holy Roman Empire from 1592 to 1627.
1644 Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau the eldest daughter of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange and his third spouse Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier.
1645 Johan Skytte a Swedish politician.
1660 Louise de Marillac the co-founder, with Saint Vincent de Paul, of the Daughters of Charity. She is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church
1673 Salvator Rosa an Italian Baroque painter, poet, and printmaker, who was active in Naples, Rome, and Florence. As a painter, he is best known as "unorthodox and extravagant" as well as being a "perpetual rebel" and a proto-Romantic
1679 Antonio Maria Abbatini an Italian composer, active mainly in Rome.
1688 Charles of Mecklenburg-Güstrow the hereditary prince of Mecklenburg-Güstrow. He was a son of Gustavus Adolph and his wife Magdalene Sibylle née Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, a daughter of Frederick III
1711 Eusebio Kino now a part of northern Italy. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the region then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico and southern Arizona in the United States. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Sobaipuri and other Upper Piman groups. He proved that Baja California is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions and visitas
1721 Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow Queen consort of Denmark and Norway as the first spouse of the King Frederick IV of Denmark.
1723 Johann Christian Günther a German poet from Striegau in Lower Silesia. After attending the gymnasium at Schweidnitz, he was sent in 1715 by his father, a country doctor, to study medicine at Wittenberg; but he was idle and dissipated, had no taste for the profession chosen for him, and came to a complete rupture with his family. In 1717 he went to Leipzig, where he was befriended by Johann Burkhard Mencke , who recognized his genius; and there he published a poem on the peace of Passarowitz which acquired him reputation. A recommendation from Mencke to Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, king of Poland, proved worse than useless, as Günther appeared at the audience drunk. From that time he led an unsettled and dissipated life, sinking ever deeper into the slough of misery, until he died at Jena on March 15, 1723, when only in his 28th year. Goethe pronounces Günther to have been a poet in the fullest sense of the term. His lyric poems as a whole give evidence of deep and lively sensibility, fine imagination, clever wit, and a true ear for melody and rhythm; but an air of cynicism is more or less present in most of them, and dull or vulgar witticisms are not infrequently found side by side with the purest inspirations of his genius
1724 Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours born a Princess of Savoy and was later the Duchess of Savoy. Married by proxy to Charles of Lorraine in 1662, Lorraine soon refused to recognise the union. Despite this, she married Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy in 1665 who was her second cousin once removed. The mother of the future Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia who saw the elevation of the House of Savoy to kings, she styled herself as Madama Reale or Madame Royale and acted as Regent of Savoy from 1675 in the name of her son Victor Amadeus II who was his successor. Her regency officially ended in 1680 but she maintained power for four years until her son banished her from further influence in the state. She left a considerable architectural legacy in Turin and was responsible for the remodelling of the Palazzo Madama which was her private residence. At the time of her death she was the mother of the King of Sardinia as well as great grandmother of the King of Spain and King of France
1729 Elisabeth Eleonore of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel the eldest daughter of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and his wife Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg.
1745 Michel de la Barre a French composer and renowned flautist known as being the first person to publish solo flute music. He played at the Académie Royale de Musique, the Musettes and Hautbois de Poitou and the courts of Louis XIV and Louis XV
1806 Karl Friedrich Becker a German educator and historian. His most noted work was World History for Children and Teachers of Children which was widely used and much edited and revised by other noted historians after Becker's death
1820 Clemens Maria Hofbauer a hermit and later a priest of the Redemptorist congregation. He is considered a co-founder of the congregation and is a patron saint of Vienna
1821 Abraham Niclas Edelcrantz a Finnish born Swedish poet and inventor. He was a member of the Swedish Academy, chair 2, from 1786 to 1821
1832 Otto Wilhelm Masing an early Baltic German Estophile and a major advocate of peasant rights, especially regarding education.
1833 Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel a German botanist and physician.
1837 Lukijan Mušicki a Serbian poet, prose writer, and polyglot.
1842 Luigi Cherubini an Italian composer who spent most of his working life in France. His most significant compositions are operas and sacred music. Beethoven regarded Cherubini as the greatest of his contemporaries
1848 Johan Jakob Nervander a Finnish poet, physicist and meteorologist.
1849 Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti an Italian cardinal and famed linguist and hyperpolyglot. Born and educated in Bologna, he completed his theological studies before he had reached the minimum age for ordination as a priest; he was ordained in 1797. In the same year, he became professor of Arabic at the University of Bologna. He later lost the position for refusing to take the oath of allegiance required by the Cisalpine Republic, which governed Bologna at the time
1853 Isaac Johnson a US politician and the 12th Governor of the state of Louisiana.
1862 Hendrik Scheffer a Dutch painter in the Romantic tradition who lived in France for most of his life. In France he is usually known as Henri Scheffer
1866 Ferdinand Flocon a French journalist and politician who was one of the founding members of the Provisional Government at the start of the French Second Republic in 1848. He was Minister of Agriculture and Commerce for the Executive Commission of 1848. He opposed Louis Napoleon and was forced into exile in the Second French Empire
1868 François-Édouard Picot a French painter during the July Monarchy, painting mythological, religious and historical subjects.
1875 William Maynard Gomm a British Army officer. After taking part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, he served in most of the battles of the Napoleonic Wars. During the Hundred Days he took part in both the Battle of Quatre Bras and the Battle of Waterloo. He went on to be Commander of the troops in Jamaica and in that role established new barracks at Newcastle, Jamaica, high in the mountains. After that he became Governor of Mauritius and, finally, Commander-in-Chief, India in which role he introduced promotion examinations for officers
1885 Frank North an American interpreter, United States Army officer and politician. He is most well known for organizing and leading the Pawnee Scouts from 1865 to 1877
1886 Edward Tuckerman an American botanist and professor who made significant contributions to the study of lichens and other alpine plants. He was a founding member of the Natural History Society of Boston and most of his career was spent at Amherst College. He did the majority of his collecting on the slopes of Mount Washington in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Tuckerman Ravine was named in his honor. The standard botanical author abbreviation Tuck. is applied to species he described
1891 Joseph Bazalgette a 19th-century English civil engineer. As chief engineer of London's Metropolitan Board of Works his major achievement was the creation of a sewer network for central London which was instrumental in relieving the city from cholera epidemics, while beginning the cleansing of the River Thames
1891 Sava Mutkurov a Bulgarian officer and politician. One of only three recipients of the Order of Bravery 1st grade, he was among the chief architects of the Bulgarian unification and, as an officer in the young Bulgarian Army, one of its defendants in the Serbo–Bulgarian War. He also served as one of the regents of the Principality of Bulgaria after Prince Alexander of Battenberg's abdication and was Minister of War in Stefan Stambolov's government
1895 Inoue Kowashi a statesman in Meiji period Japan.
1896 John Ireland (politician) the 18th Governor of Texas from 1883 to 1887. During Ireland's term, the University of Texas was established, and construction on the Texas State Capitol began. Ireland is credited with the selection of local pink granite as the construction material
1897 James Joseph Sylvester an English mathematician. He made fundamental contributions to matrix theory, invariant theory, number theory, partition theory and combinatorics. He played a leadership role in American mathematics in the later half of the 19th century as a professor at the Johns Hopkins University and as founder of the American Journal of Mathematics. At his death, he was professor at Oxford