Born on March 18

1380 Lidwina honored as a saint by the Catholic Church.
1395 John Holland 2nd Duke of Exeter an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
1496 Mary Tudor Queen of France Queen of France. Mary became the third wife of Louis XII of France, more than 30 years her senior. Following his death, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. The marriage, which was performed secretly in France, took place without her brother's consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey and the couple were eventually pardoned by Henry VIII, although they were forced to pay a large fine
1502 Philibert of Chalon the last prince of Orange from the house of Chalon.
1545 Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn a Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, Echter was born in Mespelbrunn Castle, Spessart and died in Würzburg.
1553 Wenceslaus Hajek a Bohemian chronicler, author of the Annales Bohemorum. The Annales was translated into German by Johann Sandel , and was long considered one of the best sources of Bohemian history. Modern criticism has found it to be very inaccurate as a description of the times described, although still useful for information about the literary traditions of the time
1555 Francis Duke of Anjou the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.
1578 Adam Elsheimer a German artist working in Rome who died at only thirty-two, but was very influential in the early 17th century. His relatively few paintings were small scale, nearly all painted on copper plates, of the type often known as cabinet paintings. They include a variety of light effects, and an innovative treatment of landscape. He was an influence on many other artists, including Rembrandt and Peter Paul Rubens
1590 Manuel de Faria e Sousa a Portuguese historian and poet, frequently writing in Spanish.
1597 Jérôme le Royer de la Dauversière a French nobleman who spent his life in serving the needs of the poor. A founder of the Société Notre-Dame de Montréal, he also helped to establish the French colony of Montreal. Although a layman, as part of that objective, he was the founder of the Congregation of the Religious Hospitallers of Joseph, Religious Sisters dedicated to the care of the sick poor. He has been declared Venerable by the Catholic Church
1602 Jacques de Billy a French Jesuit mathematician. Born in Compiègne, he subsequently entered the Society of Jesus. From 1629 to 1630, Billy taught mathematics at the Jesuit College at Pontà Mousson. He was still studying theology at this time. From 1631 to 1633, Billy taught mathematics at the Jesuit college at Rheims. From 1665 to 1668 he was professor of mathematics at the Jesuit college at Dijon. One of his pupils there was Jacques Ozanam. Billy also taught in Grenoble. He also served as rector of a number of Jesuit Colleges in Châlons, Langres and in Sens
1603 Simon Bradstreet a colonial magistrate, businessman, diplomat, and the last governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Arriving in Massachusetts on the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, Bradstreet was almost constantly involved in the politics of the colony but became its governor only in 1679. He served on diplomatic missions and as agent to the crown in London, and also served as a commissioner to the New England Confederation. He was politically comparatively moderate, arguing minority positions in favor of freedom of speech and for accommodation of the demands of King Charles II following his restoration to the throne
1609 Frederick III of Denmark king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. He also governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden , and the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen
1634 Madame de La Fayette a French writer, the author of La Princesse de Clèves, France's first historical novel and one of the earliest novels in literature.
1640 Philippe de La Hire a French mathematician and astronomer. According to Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle he was an "academy unto himself"
1657 Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni an organist and composer from Perugia, Italy. He became one of the leading musicians in Rome during the late Baroque era, the first half of the 18th century
1685 Ralph Erskine (preacher) a Scottish churchman.
1690 Christian Goldbach a German mathematician who also studied law. He is remembered today for Goldbach's conjecture
1701 Niclas Sahlgren a Swedish merchant and philanthropist.
1728 Kyrylo Rozumovskyi a Ukrainian-born Russian Registered Cossack from the Kozelets, Kiev Regiment, Russian Empire , who served as the last Hetman of Zaporozhian Host of Left- and Right-Bank of Dnieper until 1764, from 1764 Razumovsky was the Field marshal of Russian Army.
1732 John Walker (lexicographer) an English stage actor, philologist and lexicographer. Early in life he became an actor, his theatrical engagements including one with David Garrick at Drury Lane, and a long season in Dublin, Ireland. In 1768 he left the stage. After some experiences in conducting a school at Kensington he commenced to teach elocution, and in this found his principal employment for the rest of his life. In 1775 he published his Rhyming Dictionary, which achieved a great success and has been repeatedly reprinted, and in 1791 his Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, which achieved an even greater reputation, and has run into some forty editions. He was the friend of the leading literary men of his time, including Samuel Johnson and Edmund Burke
1733 Christoph Friedrich Nicolai a German writer and bookseller.
1762 Fyodor Engelhardt a Russian Brigadier General and a hero of the storming of Izmail during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792.
1763 Friedrich Gottlob Hayne a German botanist, taxonomist, pharmacist and professor.
1765 David Hendrik Chassé a Dutch soldier who fought both for and against Napoleon. He commanded the Third Netherlands Division that intervened at a crucial moment in the Battle of Waterloo. In 1830 he bombarded the city of Antwerp as commander of its citadel during the Belgian Revolution
1780 Miloš Obrenović I Prince of Serbia Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans
1781 Louis Athanase Chaubard a French botanist and naturalist.
1782 John C. Calhoun a leading American politician and political theorist during the first half of the 19th century. Hailing from South Carolina, Calhoun began his political career as a nationalist, modernizer, and proponent of a strong national government and protective tariffs. After 1830, his views evolved and he became a greater proponent of states' rights, limited government, nullification and free trade; as he saw these means as the only way to preserve the Union. He is best known for his intense and original defense of slavery as something positive, his distrust of majoritarianism, and for pointing the South toward secession from the Union
1784 Benjamin Bathurst (diplomat) a British diplomatic envoy who disappeared in Germany during the Napoleonic Wars. He was the third son of Henry Bathurst, Bishop of Norwich
1790 Marquis de Custine best known for his travel writing, in particular his account of his visit to Russia in 1839 Empire of the Czar: A Journey Through Eternal Russia. This work documents not only Custine's travels through the Russian empire, but also the social fabric, economy, and way of life during the reign of Nicholas I
1796 Jakob Steiner a Swiss mathematician who worked primarily in geometry.
1798 Gustav Rose a German mineralogist who was a native of Berlin. He was a brother of mineralogist Heinrich Rose , the son of pharmacologist Valentin Rose , and the father of noted surgeon Edmund Rose and the classicist Valentin Rose
1800 Claude Gay a French botanist, naturalist and illustrator. This explorer carried out some of the first investigations about Chilean flora, fauna, geology and geography. The Cordillera Claudio Gay in the Atacama Region of Chile is named after him
1802 Alfred-Auguste Cuvillier-Fleury a French historian and literary critic.
1810 Charles Forbes René de Montalembert a French publicist, historian and Count of Montalembert, Deux-Sèvres.
1813 David Livingstone a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with M. Stanley on 10 November 1871 gave rise to the popular quotation "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Perhaps one of the most popular national heroes of the late 19th century in Victorian Britain, Livingstone had a mythic status, which operated on a number of interconnected levels: Protestant missionary martyr, working-class "rags to riches" inspirational story, scientific investigator and explorer, imperial reformer, anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of commercial empire. His fame as an explorer helped drive forward the obsession with discovering the sources of the River Nile that formed the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of the African continent
1813 Christian Friedrich Hebbel a German poet and dramatist.
1816 Antonio Salviati an Italian glass manufacturer and founder of the Salviati family firm.
1823 Antoine Chanzy a French general, notable for his successes during the Franco-Prussian War and as a governor of Algeria.
1828 Randal Cremer an English Liberal Member of Parliament, a pacifist, and a leading advocate for international arbitration.
1829 Richard Coke an American lawyer, farmer, and statesman from Waco, Texas. He was the 15th governor of Texas from 1874 to 1876 and represented Texas in the U.S. Senate from 1877 to 1895. His uncle was Congressman Richard Coke, Jr
1830 Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges a French historian.
1834 Etō Shimpei a Japanese statesman during the early Meiji period, remembered chiefly for his role in the unsuccessful Saga Rebellion.
1837 Tani Tateki a statesman and lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army in Meiji period Japan. He was also known as Tani Kanjō
1837 Grover Cleveland the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; and, therefore was the only US president to serve two nonconsecutive terms and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. He was the winner of the popular vote for president three times—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was one of the two Democrats elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933
1840 William Cosmo Monkhouse English poet and critic.
1842 Stéphane Mallarmé Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic. He was a major French symbolist poet, and his work anticipated and inspired several revolutionary artistic schools of the early 20th century, such as Cubism, Futurism, Dadaism, and Surrealism
1843 Jules Vandenpeereboom a Belgian Catholic Party politician.
1844 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five. He was a master of orchestration. His best-known orchestral compositions—Capriccio Espagnol, the Russian Easter Festival Overture, and the symphonic suite Scheherazade—are staples of the classical music repertoire, along with suites and excerpts from some of his 15 operas. Scheherazade is an example of his frequent use of fairy tale and folk subjects
1844 Mikelis Avlichos a Greek poet and scholar.