Born on March 23

1145 Tashfin ibn Ali the 6th Almoravid king, he reigned in 1143–1145.
1283 Joseph I of Constantinople a Byzantine monk who served twice as Patriarch of Constantinople, from 1266 to 1275 and from 1282 until shortly before his death in 1283. He is most notable as an opponent of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos' plans to unite the Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church, for which he is recognized as a confessor by the Orthodox Church
1338 Emperor Go-Kōgon the 4th of the Ashikaga Pretenders during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1352 through 1371
1430 Margaret of Anjou the wife of King Henry VI of England. As such, she was Queen of England from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. Born in the Duchy of Lorraine, into the House of Valois-Anjou, Margaret was the second eldest daughter of René I of Naples and Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine
1501 Pietro Andrea Mattioli a doctor and naturalist born in Siena.
1599 Thomas Selle a seventeenth-century German baroque composer.
1604 Girolamo Colonna an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and member of the noble Colonna family.
1609 Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione an Italian Baroque artist, painter, printmaker and draftsman, of the Genoese school. He is best known now for his elaborate engravings, and as the inventor of the printmaking technique of monotyping. He was known as Il Grechetto in Italy and in France as Le Benédette
1630 Ignace Cotolendi a French bishop. He was a founding member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society and became a missionary in Asia
1643 Mary of Jesus de León y Delgado a Spanish Dominican nun, mystic and visionary, known popularly as "La Siervita". She lived a life which was austere and simple, and many miracles were attributed to her, as well as levitation, ecstasy, bilocation, the stigmata, clairvoyance and healing, among others
1690 Casimir William of Hesse-Homburg a prince of Hesse-Homburg.
1699 John Bartram an early American botanist, horticulturist and explorer. Carolus Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world."
1722 Jean-Baptiste Chappe d'Auteroche a French astronomer, best known for his observations of the transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769.
1726 François Denis Tronchet a French jurist.
1732 Princess Marie Adélaïde of France the fourth daughter and sixth child of King Louis XV of France and his consort, Marie Leszczyńska. As the daughter of the king, she was a Fille de France. She was referred to as Madame Adélaïde from 1737 to 1755 and from 1759 to her death, and simply as Madame from 1755 to 1759
1749 Pierre-Simon Laplace an influential French scholar whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste. This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace
1750 Johannes Matthias Sperger an Austrian contrabassist and composer.
1754 Jurij Vega a Slovene mathematician, physicist and artillery officer.
1761 Jan Willem de Winter a Dutch admiral of the Napoleonic Wars.
1763 Fyodor Rostopchin a Russian statesman, who served as governor of Moscow during the French invasion of Russia.
1765 Antoine Claire Thibaudeau a French politician.
1766 Pierre Antoine Poiteau a French botanist, gardener and botanical artist.
1769 William Smith (geologist) an English geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide geological map. He is known as the "Father of English Geology" for collating the geological history of England and Wales into a single record, although recognition was very slow in coming. At the time his map was first published he was overlooked by the scientific community; his relatively humble education and family connections preventing him from mixing easily in learned society. Consequently his work was plagiarised, he was financially ruined, and he spent time in debtors' prison. It was only much later in his life that Smith received recognition for his accomplishments
1769 Augustin Daniel Belliard a French general.
1777 Claire de Duras a French writer best known for her 1823 novel called Ourika, which examines issues of racial and sexual equality, and which inspired the 1969 John Fowles novel The French Lieutenant's Woman.
1777 Count Karl Ludwig von Ficquelmont an Austrian aristocrat, statesman and Field marshal of the Austrian Imperial army of French noble origin.
1787 Robert M. Patterson a professor of mathematics, chemistry and natural philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania and professor of natural philosophy at the University of Virginia. He also served as director of the US Mint and as President of the American Philosophical Society
1793 Johann Baptist Jenger an Austrian composer, musician, secretary of the Steiermärkischen Musikvereins and member of the board of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna.
1795 Leopold Jansa a Bohemian violinist, composer, and teacher.
1796 Laurent-Joseph-Marius Imbert a French missionary bishop in Asia. Most notable among the Koreans, he was executed in the Kingdom of Joseon for his Catholic faith, and has been canonized by the Catholic Church
1796 Julius Friedrich Heinrich Abegg a German criminalist.
1799 Joshua Baker the 22nd Governor of Louisiana during Reconstruction.
1809 Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin a 19th-century French painter. His celebrated 1836 work Jeune Homme Nu Assis au Bord de la Mer is in the Louvre
1813 Cezar Bolliac a Wallachian and Romanian radical political figure, amateur archaeologist, journalist and Romantic poet.
1814 Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda a 19th-century Cuban-born Spanish writer.
1817 Louis Ferdinand Alfred Maury a French scholar and physician, important because his ideas about the interpretation of dreams and the effect of external stimuli on dreams pre-dated those of Sigmund Freud. He is mentioned by Freud in The Interpretation of Dreams, and by Sebastian Faulks in Human Traces. He coined the term hypnagogic hallucination and reported a dream that famously inspired Salvador Dalí's painting Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening. Alfred Maury was contemporary with Hervey de Saint Denys and the two dream researchers were in disagreement with each other
1818 Don Carlos Buell a United States Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the American Civil War. Buell led Union armies in two great Civil War battles—Shiloh and Perryville. The nation was angry at his failure to defeat the outnumbered Confederates after Perryville, or to secure East Tennessee. Historians concur that he was brave and industrious, and a master of logistics, but was too cautious and too rigid to meet the great challenges he faced in 1862. Buell was relieved of field command in late 1862 and made no more significant military contributions
1821 Aleksey Pisemsky a Russian novelist and dramatist who was regarded as an equal of Ivan Turgenev and Fyodor Dostoyevsky in the late 1850s, but whose reputation suffered a spectacular decline after his fall-out with Sovremennik magazine in the early 1860s. A realistic playwright, along with Aleksandr Ostrovsky he was responsible for the first dramatization of ordinary people in the history of Russian theatre. D.S. Mirsky said: "Pisemsky's great narrative gift and exceptionally strong grip on reality make him one of the best Russian novelists."
1822 Ivan Makarov a Russian portrait painter.
1823 Schuyler Colfax a United States Representative from Indiana , Speaker of the House of Representatives , and the 17th Vice President of the United States. To date, he is one of only two Americans to have served as both House speaker and vice president
1824 Zygmunt Miłkowski Polish romantic writer and politician who struggled for independence of Poland as leader of Polish Union. He became a member of the Serbian Learned Society in 1869, the society which preceded the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
1825 Theodor Bilharz a German physician and an important pioneer in the field of parasitology.
1825 Edward Lloyd Thomas a Confederate infantry general during the American Civil War from the state of Georgia. He was an uncle to famed American Old West lawman Heck Thomas who helped bring down the Doolin Dalton Gang
1826 Ludwig Minkus an Austrian composer of ballet music, a violin virtuoso and teacher.
1829 N. R. Pogson an English astronomer.
1831 Wilhelm Sauer a Prussian pipe organ builder. One of the famous organ builders, Sauer and his firm built over 1,100 organs during his lifetime, amongst them the organs at Bremen Cathedral, Jerusalem's Church, and Berlin Cathedral, which is considered to be "his final great masterpiece"
1832 Ōki Takatō a Japanese statesman during the early Meiji period. He was Governor of Tokyo in 1868 and a member of the Privy Council in 1889
1833 Carl Friedrich Otto Westphal a German neurologist and psychiatrist from Berlin. He was the son of Otto Carl Friedrich Westphal and Karoline Friederike Heine and the father of Alexander Carl Otto Westphal. He was married to Klara, daughter of the banker Alexander Mendelssohn
1833 Franz Bendel a German Bohemian pianist and composer.
1834 Julius Reubke a German composer, pianist and organist. In his short life — he died at the age of 24 — he composed the Sonata on the 94th Psalm, in C minor, which was and still is considered one of the greatest organ works in the repertoire