March 23 events in history

1400 The Trần Dynasty of Vietnam is deposed after one hundred and seventy-five years of rule by Hồ Quý Ly, a court official
1540 Waltham Abbey is surrendered to King Henry VIII of England; the last religious community to be closed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries
1568 The Peace of Longjumeau is signed, ending the second phase of the French Wars of Religion
1708 James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth
1757 Capture of Chandannagar fort by British forces
1775 American Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his speech – "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" – at St. John's Episcopal Church, Richmond, Virginia
1801 Tsar Paul I of Russia is struck with a sword, then strangled, and finally trampled to death inside his bedroom at St. Michael's Castle
1806 After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their "Corps of Discovery" begin their arduous journey home
1821 Greek War of Independence: Battle and fall of city of Kalamata
1848 The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded
1857 Elisha Otis's first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway New York City
1862 The First Battle of Kernstown, Virginia, marks the start of Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Though a Confederate defeat, the engagement distracts Federal efforts to capture Richmond
1868 The University of California is founded in Oakland, California when the Organic Act is signed into law
1879 War of the Pacific: The Battle of Topáter, the first battle of the war is fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru
1885 Sino-French War: Chinese victory in the Battle of Phu Lam Tao near Hung Hoa, northern Vietnam
1888 In England, The Football League, the world's oldest professional Association Football league, meets for the first time
1889 The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is established by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian, India
1901 Emilio Aguinaldo, only President of the First Philippine Republic, was captured at Palanan, Isabela by forces of General Frederick Funston
1905 Eleftherios Venizelos calls for Crete's union with Greece, and begins what is to be known as the Theriso revolt
1908 American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in a hospital two days later
1909 Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society
1918 First World War: On the third day of the German Spring Offensive, the 10th Battalion of the Royal West Kent Regiment is annihilated with many of the men becoming Prisoners of war
1919 In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement
1931 Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru and Sukhdev Thapar are hanged for murder during the Indian struggle for independence
1933 The Reichstag passes the Enabling Act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany
1935 Signing of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
1939 The Hungarian air force attacks the headquarters of Slovak air force in the city of Spišská Nová Ves, kills 13 people and began the Slovak–Hungarian War
1940 The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Pakistan or the then Qarardad-e-Lahore) is put forward at the Annual General Convention of the All India Muslim League
1942 World War II: In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces capture the Andaman Islands
1956 Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic in the world. (Republic Day in Pakistan)
1965 NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States' first two-man space flight (crew: Gus Grissom and John Young)
1965 The first issue of The Vigilant is published from Khartoum
1978 The first UNIFIL troops arrived in Lebanon for peacekeeping mission along the Blue Line
1980 Archbishop Óscar Romero of El Salvador gives his famous speech appealing to men of the El Salvadoran armed forces to stop killing the Salvadorans
1982 Guatemala's government, headed by Fernando Romeo Lucas García is overthrown in a military coup by right-wing General Efraín Ríos Montt
1983 Strategic Defense Initiative: President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles
1989 Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announce their discovery of cold fusion at the University of Utah
1991 The Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia, invades Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow Joseph Saidu Momoh, sparking a gruesome 11-year Sierra Leone Civil War
1994 At an election rally in Tijuana, Mexican presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio is assassinated by Mario Aburto Martínez
1994 Aeroflot Flight 593 crashes in Siberia when the pilot's fifteen-year old son accidentally disengages the autopilot, killing all 75 people on board
1994 A United States Air Force (USAF) F-16 aircraft collides with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground. This later became known as the Green Ramp disaster
1996 Taiwan holds its first direct elections and chooses Lee Teng-hui as President
1999 Gunmen assassinate Paraguay's Vice President Luis María Argaña
2001 The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji
2003 Battle of Nasiriyah, first major conflict during the invasion of Iraq
2005 Texas City Refinery explosion: During a test on a distillation tower liquid waste builds up and flows out of a blowout tower. Waste fumes ignite and explode killing 15 workers
2009 FedEx Express Flight 80: A McDonnell Douglas MD-11 flying from Guangzhou, China crashes at Tokyo's Narita International Airport, killing both the captain and the co-pilot