Died on March 25

1005 Kenneth III of Scotland King of Scots from 997 to 1005. He was the son of Dub. Many of the Scots sources refer to him as Giric son of Kenneth son of Dub, which is taken to be an error. An alternate explanation is that Kenneth had a son, Giric, who ruled jointly with his father
1051 Hugh IV Count of Maine Count of Maine from 1036 to 1051.
1053 Procopius of Sázava a Czech saint. He studied at Prague where he was also ordained. He was a canon and a hermit and then became the founding abbot of Sázava near Prague. He is an alleged author of the Reims Gospel
1145 Tashfin ibn Ali the 6th Almoravid king, he reigned in 1143–1145.
1189 Frederick Duke of Bohemia the duke of Olomouc from 1164 and then duke of Bohemia from 1172 to 1173 and again from 1178 to his death. He was the son of King Vladislaus II, who abdicated in 1172 in his favour. However, he could not hold on to his principality, because he was approved of by neither the national diet nor the emperor, and was deposed in September the year following by the emperor at the Diet of Hermsdorf. The Emperor Frederick I, godfather and namesake of Frederick, nominated Oldřich, son of Soběslav I, but he renounced the throne in favour of Soběslav II, sympathetic to the peasantry, but antagonistic to both nobles and emperor
1223 Afonso II of Portugal born in Coimbra on 23 April 1185 and died on 25 March 1223 in the same city. He was the second but eldest surviving son of Sancho I of Portugal by his wife, Dulce, Infanta of Aragon. Afonso succeeded his father in 1212
1289 Bentivenga da Bentivengi an Italian Franciscan and cardinal.
1323 Mary of Hungary Queen of Naples Queen consort of the Kingdom of Naples. She was a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and his wife Elizabeth the Cuman. Maris served as Regent in Provence in 1290-1294 and in Napels in 1295-96, 1296–98, and 1302, in the absence of her consort
1392 Hosokawa Yoriyuki a samurai of the Hosokawa clan, and prominent government minister under the Ashikaga shogunate, serving as Kyoto Kanrei from 1367 to 1379. The first to hold this post, he solidified the power of the shogunate, as well as elements of its administrative organization. He was also Constable of the provinces of Sanuki, Tosa, and Settsu
1458 Íñigo López de Mendoza 1st Marquis of Santillana a Castilian politician and poet who held an important position in society and literature during the reign of John II of Castile.
1537 Charles Duke of Vendôme a French prince du sang and military commander at the court of Francis I of France. He is notable as the paternal grandfather of King Henry IV of France
1558 Marcos de Niza a Franciscan friar. He was born in Nice , which was at that time under the control of the Italian House of Savoy
1570 Johann Walter a Lutheran composer and poet during the Reformation period.
1586 Margaret Clitherow an English saint and martyr of the Roman Catholic Church. She is sometimes called "the Pearl of York"
1609 Olaus Martini Archbishop of Uppsala from 1601 to his death.
1609 John William Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg a Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
1620 Johannes Nucius a German composer and music theorist of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Although isolated from most of the major centers of musical activity, he was a polished composer in the style of Lassus and penned an extremely influential treatise on the rhetorical application of compositional devices
1623 Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne Duke of Bouillon a member of the powerful, House of La Tour d'Auvergne, Prince of Sedan and a marshal of France.
1625 Giambattista Marino an Italian poet who was born in Naples. He is most famous for his long epic L'Adone
1650 Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg a princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg.
1677 Wenceslaus Hollar a Bohemian etcher, known in England as Wenceslaus or Wenceslas and in Germany as Wenzel Hollar. He was born in Prague, and died in London, being buried at St Margaret's Church, Westminster
1695 Ludwika Karolina Radziwiłł a magnate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and an active reformer. She carried the title of Princess
1701 Jean Regnault de Segrais a French poet and novelist born in Caen. He was elected a member of the Académie française in 1662
1712 Nehemiah Grew an English plant anatomist and physiologist, very famously known as the "Father of Plant Anatomy".
1732 Lucy Filippini venerated as a Roman Catholic saint. She was orphaned at an early age when her parents died. From there she went to live with her aristocratic aunt and uncle who encouraged her religious inclination by entrusting her education to the Benedictine nuns at Santa Lucia
1735 Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt a German physician, naturalist and geographer. He was born in Danzig and studied medicine in Jena and Halle, obtained his doctorate degree in the latter in 1713 and settled as a medical doctor in Danzig. In 1716, he came into contact with Russian emperor Peter the Great. By decree of November 5, 1718, Peter gave Messerschmidt the task to ”collect rarities and medicinal plants” from Siberia. Messerschmidt set out in 1720 on his exploration – the first by a naturalist in this terra incognita, which came to last for seven years. He made numerous observations related to ethnology, zoology and botany and also excavated the first known fossil mammoth remains. Messerschmidt used two simple utensils for collecting data and artefacts, written diary notes and boxes, establishing a tradition for naturalist exploration to last for a century. In Tobolsk, Messerschmidt met the Swedish lieutenant colonel Philip Johan von Strahlenberg, who had been taken prisoner at the Battle of Poltava and exiled to Siberia. Strahlenberg accompanied Messerschmidt during several expeditions and later published some of Messerschmidt’s observations. Messerschmidt explored lands all the way to Argun east of Lake Baikal. The journey, however, exhausted him, and he returned to Saint Petersburg in February 1728. He never became a member of the Academy of Sciences. He died in poverty in 1735
1736 Nicholas Hawksmoor an English architect. He was a leading figure of the English Baroque style of architecture in the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth centuries. Hawksmoor worked alongside the principal architects of the time, Christopher Wren and John Vanbrugh, and contributed to the design of some of the most notable buildings of the period, including St Paul's Cathedral, Wren's City of London churches, Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard. Part of his work has been correctly attributed to him only relatively recently, and his influence has reached several poets and authors of the twentieth century
1738 Turlough O'Carolan due to his gift for melodic composition.
1751 Frederick I of Sweden a prince consort of Sweden from 1718 to 1720, and a King of Sweden from 1720 until his death and also Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730. He ascended the throne following the death of his brother-in-law, absolutist Charles XII in the Great Northern War, as his sister and heir Ulrika Eleonora preferred to abdicate from her position as queen regnant after relinquishing most powers to the Riksdag of the Estates. His powerless reign saw his family's elimination from the line of succession after the parliamentary government dominated by pro-revanchist Hat Party politicians ventured into a war with Russia, which ended in defeat and the Russian tsarina Elizabeth demanding Adolph Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp to be instated following the death of the king
1761 Joseph Séguy a French clergyman.
1800 Friedrich Adam Julius von Wangenheim a German botanist specializing in forestry, and was the citing authority for a number of described eastern North American plant species. He was also a Hessian soldier, and during his service in the thirteen colonies devoted his leisure time to botanical studies of American forests. When he returned to Prussia, he wrote up his research and strongly advocated importing suitable American species of trees and shrubs for use in German forests
1801 Novalis the pseudonym of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg , a poet, author, and philosopher of early German Romanticism.
1818 Caspar Wessel a Norwegian-Danish mathematician and cartographer. In 1799, Wessel was the first person to describe the geometrical interpretation of complex numbers as points in the complex plane. He was the younger brother of poet and playwright Johan Herman Wessel
1818 Henry Lee III an early American patriot who served as the ninth Governor of Virginia and as the Virginia Representative to the United States Congress. During the American Revolution, Lee served as a cavalry officer in the Continental Army and earned the nickname "Light-Horse Harry". Lee was the father of Confederate general Robert Lee
1825 Antoine Fabre d'Olivet a French author, poet and composer whose Biblical and philosophical hermeneutics influenced many occultists, such as Eliphas Lévi, Gerard Encausse and Édouard Schuré.
1835 Friederike Brun a Danish author and salonist.
1840 Pavel Nikolaievich Demidov a Russian nobleman of the Demidov dynasty.
1848 Albine de Montholon a French noblewoman, and the wife of Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon. She was reputed to be the mistress of Napoleon during his exile on Saint Helena
1850 Francesco Basili an Italian composer and conductor. He was born in Loreto and died in Rome
1857 William Colgate an English manufacturer who founded in 1806 what became the Colgate toothpaste company.
1860 Julia Pastrana a woman born with hypertrichosis, who took part in 19th-century exhibition tours in North America and Europe. Pastrana, an indigenous woman from Mexico, was born in 1834, somewhere in the Sierra of Sinaloa State. She was born with a genetic condition, hypertrichosis terminalis ; her face and body were covered with straight black hair. Her ears and nose were unusually large, and her teeth were irregular. The latter condition was caused by a rare disease, undiagnosed in her lifetime, Gingival hyperplasia, which thickened her lips and gums. Charles Darwin described her as: "Julia Pastrana, a Spanish dancer, was a remarkably fine woman, but she had a thick masculine beard and a hairy forehead; she was photographed, and her stuffed skin was exhibited as a show; but what concerns us is, that she had in both the upper and lower jaw an irregular double set of teeth, one row being placed within the other, of which Purland took a cast. From the redundancy of the teeth her mouth projected, and her face had a gorilla-like appearance"
1860 James Braid (surgeon) a Scottish surgeon and "gentleman scientist". He was a significant innovator in the treatment of club-foot and an important and influential pioneer of hypnotism and hypnotherapy. He is regarded by many as the first genuine "hypnotherapist" and the "Father of Modern Hypnotism"
1864 Karl Ernst Claus a Baltic German chemist and naturalist. Claus was a professor at Kazan State University and a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He was primarily known as a chemist and discoverer of the chemical element ruthenium, but also as one of the first scientists who applied quantitative methods in botany
1867 Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge a German analytical chemist.
1869 Iginio Ugo Tarchetti an Italian author, poet, and journalist.
1873 Wilhelm Marstrand born in Copenhagen, Denmark, to Nicolai Jacob Marstrand, instrument maker and inventor, and Petra Othilia Smith. Marstrand is one of the most renowned artists belonging to the Golden Age of Danish Painting
1875 Louis Amédée Achard a prolific French novelist.
1879 Georg Friedrich Schömann a German classical scholar of Swedish heritage.
1885 Karl Schwarz a German Protestant theologian.
1889 Cornelius Mathews an American writer, best known for his crucial role in the formation of a literary group known as Young America in the late 1830s, with editor Evert Duyckinck and author William Gilmore Simms.