Born on March 26

1437 Walter Stewart Earl of Atholl a Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert II of Scotland. Stewart was an enthusiastic advocate of the ransom and return to Scotland of the future king in exile, James I, in 1424. In 1425 he served as a member of the jury of 21 which tried and executed his nephew Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany. Eventually however Atholl turned against the King and conspired in his assassination in 1437. He was tried for murder and was executed after 3 days of gruesome torture
1516 Conrad Gessner a Swiss naturalist and bibliographer. He was well known as a botanist, physician and classical linguist. His five-volume Historiae animalium is considered the beginning of modern zoology, and the flowering plant genus Gesneria and its family Gesneriaceae are named after him. A genus of moths is also named Gesneria after him. He is denoted by the author abbreviation Gesner when citing a botanical name
1554 Charles Duke of Mayenne a French nobleman of the house of Guise and a military leader of the Catholic League, which he headed during the French Wars of Religion, following the assassination of his brothers at Blois in 1588. In 1596, when he made peace with Henri of Navarre, the wars were essentially at an end. He was the second son of Francis of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Anna d'Este, the daughter of Ercole d'Este II, Duke of Ferrara and Renée of France
1613 Henry Vane the Younger an English politician, statesman, and colonial governor. He was briefly present in North America, serving one term as the Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and supported the creation of Roger Williams' Rhode Island Colony and Harvard College. A proponent of religious tolerance, he returned to England in 1637 following the Antinomian controversy that led to the banning of Anne Hutchinson from Massachusetts
1633 Mary Beale an English portrait painter. She became one of the most important portrait painters of 17th-century England, and has been described as the first professional female English painter
1634 Domenico Freschi an Italian composer and Roman Catholic priest. From the age of 22 until his death he worked as a church musician and composer in Vincenza. He was also active as an opera composer from 1671 to 1685
1662 Marie Louise of Orléans (1662–1689) Queen consort of Spain from 1679 to 1689 as the first wife of King Charles II of Spain. She was a granddaughter of Louis XIII of France; this made her a petite-fille de France. In her adopted country, she was known as María Luisa de Orleans
1698 Prokop Diviš Dom Prokop Diviš, O.Praem. Czech pronunciation: was a Czech canon regular, theologian and natural scientist, who invented the first grounded lightning rod
1708 Louis Guillouet comte d'Orvilliers a French admiral.
1744 Thomas de Mahy marquis de Favras a French aristocrat and supporter of the House of Bourbon during the French Revolution.
1750 Gilbert Romme a French politician and mathematician who developed the French Republican Calendar.
1753 Benjamin Thompson an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part of the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics. He also served as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Loyalist forces in America during the American Revolutionary War. After the end of the war he moved to London where his administrative talents were recognized when he was appointed a full Colonel, and in 1784 received a knighthood from King George III. A prolific designer, he also drew designs for warships. He later moved to Bavaria and entered government service there, being appointed Bavarian Army Minister and re-organizing the army, and, in 1791, was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire
1773 Nathaniel Bowditch an early American mathematician remembered for his work on ocean navigation. He is often credited as the founder of modern maritime navigation; his book The New American Practical Navigator, first published in 1802, is still carried on board every commissioned U.S. Naval vessel
1789 Edward Bromhead a British landowner and mathematician best remembered as patron of the mathematician and physicist George Green.
1794 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld a German painter, associated with the Nazarene movement.
1796 Bellamy Storer (1796–1875) a U.S. Representative from Ohio, father of Bellamy Storer
1797 Joseph Fielding an early leader of the Latter Day Saint movement. He served as the second president of the British Mission , coordinating the activities of missionaries in sections of the United Kingdom and parts of Europe. He was the brother of Mary Fielding, the second wife of Hyrum Smith, and an uncle of Joseph Smith, the sixth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
1808 John William Ritchie a Canadian lawyer and politician from Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. Ritchie was the son of Thomas Ritchie and Elizabeth Wildman Johnston. He studied law with his uncle James William Johnston and was admitted to the bar in 1831. Appointed to the Nova Scotia legislative council as Solicitor General in 1864, he was a delegate to the London Conference on Canadian Confederation and as such is considered one of the Fathers of Confederation. Appointed to the Canadian Senate in 1867, he was a judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia from 1873 to 1882. His younger brother, William Johnstone Ritchie, was Chief Justice of Canada. His daughter was Eliza Ritchie
1812 Charles Mackay (author) a Scottish poet, journalist, author, anthologist, novelist, and songwriter, remembered mainly for his book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds.
1815 Gustav Rümelin a German statistician, pedagogue and author.
1817 Wilhelm Roser a German surgeon and ophthalmologist. He was born in Stuttgart and died in Marburg
1819 Prince George Duke of Cambridge a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III, cousin of Queen Victoria, and maternal uncle of Queen Mary, consort of King George The Duke was an army officer by profession and served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces from 1856 to 1895. He became Duke of Cambridge in 1850 and Field Marshal in 1862. Deeply devoted to the old Army, he worked with the Queen to defeat or minimize every reform proposal, such as setting up a general staff. His Army became a moribund and stagnant institution, lagging far behind France and Germany. Its weaknesses were dramatically revealed by the poor organization at the start of the Second Boer War
1821 Simon Binnendijk a Dutch gardener and botanist.
1821 Ernst Engel a German statistician and economist, famous for the Engel curve and the Engel's law.
1826 Princess Elisabeth of Saxe-Altenburg (1826–1896) a daughter of Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and his wife Duchess Amelia of Württemberg. By marriage, she became Grand Duchess of Oldenburg
1832 Michel Bréal born at Landau in Rhenish Bavaria. He is often identified as a founder of modern semantics
1832 Berend Wilhelm Feddersen a German physicist.
1833 Antonín Bennewitz a Czech violinist, conductor and teacher. He was in a line of violinists that extended back to Giovanni Battista Viotti, and forward to Jan Kubelík and Wolfgang Schneiderhan
1834 Hermann Wilhelm Vogel of great importance to photography.
1840 George Smith (Assyriologist) a pioneering English Assyriologist who first discovered and translated the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the oldest-known written works of literature.
1842 Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre a French occultist who adapted the works of Fabre d'Olivet and, in turn, had his ideas adapted by Papus. He developed the term Synarchy—the association of everyone with everyone else—into a political philosophy, and his ideas about this type of government proved influential in politics and the occult
1845 Juhan Maaker an Estonian folk musician, a player of the Estonian bagpipe. He was considered one of the most popular players at the time called the king of bagpipe players
1846 Ernst Hugo Heinrich Pfitzer a German botanist specialist of the taxonomy of the Orchidaceae.
1849 Armand Peugeot a French industrialist, pioneer of the automobile industry and the founder of the French firm Peugeot.
1850 Edward Bellamy an American author and socialist, most famous for his utopian novel, Looking Backward, a Rip Van Winkle-like tale set in the distant future of the year 2000. Bellamy's vision of a harmonious future world inspired the formation of over 160 "Nationalist Clubs" dedicated to the propagation of Bellamy's political ideas and working to make them a practical reality
1851 Julius Langbehn a German conservative art historian and philosopher. He was born in Hadersleben, Schleswig , and died in Rosenheim
1854 Maurice Lecoq a French sport shooter who competed in the late 19th century and early 20th century. He participated in Shooting at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris and won a silver medal with the French military pistol team and a bronze medal in the military rifle team. He also competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games and the 1908 Summer Olympics
1856 William Massey the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand, from 1912 to 1925, and the founder of the Reform Party. He is widely considered to have been one of the more skilled politicians of his time, and was known for the particular support he showed for rural interests. After Richard Seddon, he is the second-longest-serving Prime Minister of New Zealand
1859 Adolf Hurwitz a German mathematician.
1859 'Abd al-Ahad Khan the 17th emir of the Manghit dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of the Emirate of Bukhara, which at the time was a part of the Russian Empire. He ascended to the title aged 26 upon the death of his father, Muzaffaruddin Bahadur Kkan, on 12 November 1885
1859 A. E. Housman Alfred Edward Housman , usually known as E. Housman, was an English classical scholar and poet, best known to the general public for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad. Lyrical and almost epigrammatic in form, the poems wistfully evoke the dooms and disappointments of youth in the English countryside. Their beauty, simplicity and distinctive imagery appealed strongly to late Victorian and Edwardian taste, and to many early 20th-century English composers both before and after the First World War. Through their song-settings, the poems became closely associated with that era, and with Shropshire itself
1859 Nikolay Sokolov (composer) a Russian composer of classical music and a member of the circle that grew around the publisher Mitrofan Belyayev.
1860 André Prévost (tennis) a tennis player competing for France. He finished runner-up to Paul Aymé in the singles event of the Amateur French Championships in 1900. Prévost also competed in the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, where he and Georges de la Chapelle shared the bronze medal with Harold Mahony and Arthur Norris in the men's doubles event. His daughter Hélène won silver in the women's singles
1861 Uchimura Kanzō a Japanese author, Christian evangelist, and the founder of the Nonchurch Movement of Christianity in the Meiji and Taishō period Japan. He is often considered to be the most well-known Japanese pre-World War II pacifist
1866 Carl Christian Mez a German botanist and university professor. He is denoted by the author abbreviation Mez when citing a botanical name
1866 Fred Karno an English theatre impresario of the British music hall. Karno is credited with inventing the custard-pie-in-the-face gag. During the 1890s, in order to circumvent stage censorship, Karno developed a form of sketch comedy without dialogue. Cheeky authority-defying playlets such as "Jail Birds" in which prisoners play tricks on warders and "Early Birds" where a small man defeats a large ruffian in London's East End can be seen as precursors of movie silent comedy
1868 Fuad I of Egypt the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel. He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad
1869 David Aizman a Russian-Jewish novelist and playwright.
1870 Luigi Sincero a Roman Catholic Cardinal and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law and Secretary of Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Churches, the title of Prefect held by the Popes from 1917 until 1967.
1871 Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole a prince of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was overthrown by international businessmen in 1893. He later went on to become a politician in the Territory of Hawaii as delegate to the United States Congress, and as such is the first native Hawaiian and only person ever elected to that body who was born a royal