Born on March 28

623 Marwan I the fourth Umayyad Caliph, and the cousin of Uthman ibn Affan, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II abdicated in 684. Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam , both of whom were grandsons of Umayya. Hakam was also the uncle of Uthman ibn Affan
661 Muawiya II an Umayyad caliph for about four months after the death of his father Yazīd. The empire he inherited was in a state of disarray with Abdullah bin Zubayr claiming to be the true caliph and holding the Hejaz as well as other areas
1222 Hermann II Landgrave of Thuringia the Landgrave of Thuringia and the son of Louis IV, Landgrave of Thuringia, and Saint Elizabeth of Hungary.
1468 Charles I Duke of Savoy the Duke of Savoy from 1482 to 1490 and titular king of Cyprus, Jerusalem, and Armenia from 1485 to 1490.
1472 Fra Bartolomeo an Italian Renaissance painter of religious subjects.
1483 Raphael an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period
1515 Teresa of Ávila a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, an author of the Counter Reformation and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be a founder of the Discalced Carmelites along with John of the Cross
1522 Albert Alcibiades Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, also known as Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
1554 Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich of Russia Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of the Tsardom of Russia, being the second son of Ivan the Terrible and Anastasia Romanovna, and elder brother of Feodor.
1569 Ranuccio I Farnese Duke of Parma reigned as Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1592. A firm believer in absolute monarchy, Ranuccio, in 1594, centralised the administration of Parma and Piacenza, thus rescinding the nobles' hitherto vast prerogative. He is best remembered for the "Great Justice" of 1612, which saw the executions of a large number of Piacentine nobles suspected of plotting against him. Because one of the conspirators, Gianfrancesco Sanvitale, falsely implicated several Italian princes, namely Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Cesare d'Este, Duke of Modena, in the plot, Vincenzo and Cesare's names appeared on the list of conspirators during formal court proceedings; as a result, Ranuccio's reputation among the rulers of Italy was irreparably damaged because it was evident that he gave credence to Gianfrancesco's obviously false confession. When, consequently, in the early 1620s, Ranuccio was looking for a bride for his younger legitimate son and heir, Odoardo, none of the Italian ruling families were forthcoming with princesses. He did, however, manage to engineer a match with Margherita de' Medici, daughter of Cosimo II of Tuscany
1592 John Amos Comenius a Czech teacher, educator and writer. He served as the last bishop of Unity of the Brethren and became a religious refugee and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica Magna. He is considered the father of modern education. Comenius was the innovator who first introduced pictorial textbooks, written in native language instead of Latin, applied effective teaching based on the natural gradual growth from simple to more comprehensive concepts, supported lifelong learning and development of logical thinking by moving from dull memorization, presented and supported the idea of equal opportunity for impoverished children, opened doors to education for women, made instruction universal and practical. He lived and worked in many different countries in Europe, including Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Transylvania, the Holy Roman Empire, England, the Netherlands and Royal Hungary
1599 Witte Corneliszoon de With a famous Dutch naval officer of the 17th century.
1605 Nishiyama Sōin a haikai-no-renga poet of the early Tokugawa period. He founded the Danrin school of haikai poetry, which aimed to move away from the serious 'bookishness' popular in Japanese poetry at the time and become more in touch with the common people, infusing a spirit of greater freedom into their poetry
1608 Léon Bouthillier comte de Chavigny a Foreign Minister of France to Louis XIII.
1613 Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang a concubine of the Qing Dynasty ruler Hong Taiji. She was declared his spouse officially although she was not his first wife, becoming empress in 1636. Her life after becoming the empress dowager is more well known historically. She was the mother of Hong Taiji's successor, the Shunzhi Emperor, and grandmother of Shunzhi's successor, Kangxi Emperor. She wielded significant influence in the Qing imperial court during the reign of her son and especially, during that of her grandson. Known for her wisdom and political insight, Empress Xiaozhuangwen is a respected figure in the history of the Qing Dynasty
1619 Maurice Duke of Saxe-Zeitz a duke of Saxe-Zeitz and member of the House of Wettin.
1621 Heinrich Schwemmer a German music teacher and composer.
1630 Silvestro Valiero the 109th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on 25 February 1694 until his death six years later. The Morean War between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire, which had been ongoing since 1684, came to an end during Valiero's reign as Doge, in January 1699
1638 Frederik Ruysch a Dutch botanist and anatomist, remembered for his developments in anatomical preservation and the creation of dioramas or scenes incorporating human parts. Ruysch came to recognition with his proof of valves in the lymphatic system, the Vomeronasal organ in snakes, and arteria centralis oculi
1652 Samuel Sewall a judge, businessman, and printer in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, best known for his involvement in the Salem witch trials, for which he later apologized, and his essay The Selling of Joseph , which criticized slavery. He served for many years as the chief justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court of Judicature, the province's high court
1660 Arnold Houbraken a Dutch painter and writer from Dordrecht, now remembered mainly as a biographer of artists from the Dutch Golden Age. He had ten children. His son Jacobus Houbraken was an engraver of portraits and book illustrations, including books by his father. His daughter Antonina Houbraken also became an engraver for an Amsterdam publisher, and is known today for her embellishment of cityscapes and buildings with animals and people
1675 Johann Wilhelm Duke of Saxe-Jena a duke of Saxe-Jena.
1675 Frederick William Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg in the Mecklenburg-Schwerin portion of the duchy of Mecklenburg from 1692 until 1713.
1684 Tekle Haymanot I nəgusä nägäst of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was the son of Iyasu I and Empress Malakotawit. He is often referred to as "Irgum Tekle Haymanot" or "Tekle Haymanot the Cursed"
1691 Charles Emil Lewenhaupt a Swedish general.
1725 Andrew Kippis an English nonconformist clergyman and biographer.
1727 Maximilian III Joseph Elector of Bavaria Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria from 1745 to 1777.
1731 Ramón de la Cruz a Spanish neoclassical dramatist.
1741 Johann André a German musician, composer and music publisher. He was born and died in Offenbach am Main
1742 Pierre Paul Nicolas Henrion de Pansey a French jurist and politician. He was briefly Minister of Justice in the French provisional government of 1814 formed after the defeat of Napoleon. He was one of the presidents of the Court of Cassation, a final court of appeal in France. He wrote several major works on jurisprudence
1743 Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. Her name was often spelt in English as Princess Dashkov
1749 Antonio Doria Pamphili an Italian Cardinal from a prominent Neapolitan noble family of Genoese heritage. As protodeacon, he announced the election of cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti election at the end of the conclave of 1800 as Pope Pius VII
1750 Francisco de Miranda a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812. He was handed over to his enemies and four years later, in 1816, died in a Spanish prison. Within fourteen years of his death, however, most of Spanish America was independent
1760 Georg Adlersparre a Swedish army commander, politician and writer.
1760 Thomas Clarkson an English abolitionist, and a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire. He helped found The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade and helped achieve passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807, which ended British trade in slaves. In his later years Clarkson campaigned for the abolition of slavery worldwide; it was then concentrated in the Americas. In 1840, he was the key speaker at the Anti-Slavery Society's first conference in London, which campaigned to end slavery in other countries
1766 Joseph Weigl an Austrian composer and conductor, born in Eisenstadt, Hungary, Austrian Empire.
1773 Henri Gatien Bertrand born at Châteauroux, Indre as a member of a well-to-do bourgeois family.
1785 Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha a prince of the house of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and a general of cavalry in the Austrian Imperial and Royal Army during the Napoleonic Wars.
1793 Henry Schoolcraft an American geographer, geologist, and ethnologist, noted for his early studies of Native American cultures, as well as for his 1832 expedition to the source of the Mississippi River. He is also noted for his major six-volume study of American Indians in the 1850s
1795 Georg Heinrich Pertz a German historian born at Hanover.
1799 Karl Adolph von Basedow a German physician most famous for reporting the symptoms of what could later be dubbed Graves-Basedow disease, now technically known as exophthalmic goiter.
1800 Johann Georg Wagler a German herpetologist.
1800 Antonio Tamburini an Italian operatic baritone.
1801 Karl Friedrich Knorre best known for founding the Nikolayev Astronomical Observatory in 1827. Knorre's father, Ernst Friedrich Knorre, and his son, Viktor Knorre, were also prominent astronomers. Recently NASA named an asteroid in honor of the three generations of Knorre astronomers
1806 Hans Victor von Unruh a Prussian civil servant and politician, President of the Prussian National Assembly of 1848 and Member of the Reichstag of the German Empire.
1806 Thomas Hare (political scientist) a British proponent of electoral reform.
1808 Knud Baade a Norwegian painter, mostly of portraits and landscapes. He was particularly known for his moonlight paintings which are characterized by strong and dramatic contrasts between light and shadow
1809 George Richmond (painter) an English painter. In his youth he was a member of The Ancients, a group of followers of William Blake. Later in life he established a career as a portrait painter
1811 John Neumann Nepomucene Neumann, C.Ss.R. was a native of Bohemia who emigrated to the United States, where he became a Catholic priest, Redemptorist and the fourth Bishop of Philadelphia. He is the first American bishop to be canonized. While Bishop of Philadelphia, Neumann founded the first Catholic diocesan school system in the United States
1811 Jean-Pierre Cluysenaar a Belgian architect. He was born in Kampen in the Netherlands as a descendant of a Dutch family of architects and engineers. During the United Kingdom of the Netherlands his family settled in the southern Belgian provinces. Cluysenaar studied architecture at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels under Tilman-François Suys. His teacher influenced him in his preference for the architecture of the Italian Renaissance