Born on March 29

1187 Arthur I Duke of Brittany 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany between 1196 and 1202. He was the posthumous son of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany and Constance, Duchess of Brittany. Geoffrey was a son of Henry II of England, younger than Richard I but older than John. In 1190 Arthur was designated heir to the throne of England and its French territory by his uncle, Richard I, the intent being that Arthur would succeed Richard in preference to Richard's younger brother John. Nothing is recorded of Arthur after his incarceration in Rouen Castle in 1203, and his precise fate is unknown
1517 Carlo Carafa successively condottiero in the service of France and of Spain, vying for their protectorates in Italy until 1555, when he was made a cardinal, to 1559 the all-powerful favourite and Cardinal Nephew of Pope Paul IV Carafa, whose policies he directed and whom he served as papal legate in Paris, Venice and Brussels. According to the Jesuit and later Cardinal Pietro Sforza Pallavicino, writing the history of the Council of Trent, his subtlety of spirit and grace of address, physical courage and instinct for glory were overridden by his insatiable thirst for power
1553 Vitsentzos Kornaros a Cretan poet, who wrote the romantic epic poem Erotokritos. He wrote in vernacular Greek, and was a leading figure of the Cretan Renaissance
1561 Santorio Santorio an Italian physiologist, physician, and professor. He introduced the quantitative approach into medicine and, as his pupil, introduced the mechanistic principles of Galileo Galilei to medicine. His work De medicina statica influenced generations of physicians
1584 Ferdinando Fairfax 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1648. He was a commander in the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War
1588 Margherita Aldobrandini a Duchess consort of Parma. She was the regent of Parma 1626-1628
1602 John Lightfoot an English churchman, rabbinical scholar, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge and Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge.
1613 Louis-Isaac Lemaistre de Sacy a theologian and French humanist. He is best known for his translation of the Bible the most widespread French Bible in the 18th century, also known as the Bible de Port-Royal
1629 Alexis of Russia the Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. His reign saw the Russian invasion of Poland and war with Sweden during the Deluge, the Raskol schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, and the Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. On the eve of his death in 1676, the Tsardom of Russia spanned almost 2,000,000,000 acres
1662 Tsarevna Feodosia Alekseyevna of Russia the seventh daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.
1713 John Ponsonby (politician) an Irish politician.
1735 Johann Karl August Musäus a popular German author and one of the first collectors of German folk stories, most celebrated for his Volksmärchen der Deutschen , a collection of German fairy tales retold as satires.
1747 Luigi Acquisti an Italian sculptor mainly known for his works in the neoclassical style.
1747 Johann Wilhelm Hässler a German composer, organist and pianist.
1751 Supply Belcher an American composer, singer, and compiler of tune books. He was one of the members of the so-called First New England School, a group of mostly self-taught composers who created sacred vocal music for local choirs. He was active first in Lexington, Massachusetts, then eventually moved to Farmington, Maine. Like most of his colleagues, Belcher could not make music his main occupation, and worked as tax assessor, schoolmaster, town clerk, and so on; nevertheless he was considerably well known for his musical activities, and even dubbed 'the Handell of Maine' by a local newspaper. Most of his works survive in The Harmony of Maine, a collection Belcher published himself in Boston in 1794
1754 Osip Kozodavlev a Russian statesman, politician and Minister of the Interior from March 31 of 1810 to June 24 of 1819.
1769 Friedrich Accum a German chemist, whose most important achievements included advances in the field of gas lighting, efforts to keep processed foods free from dangerous additives, and the promotion of interest in the science of chemistry to the general populace. From 1793 to 1821 Accum lived in London. Following an apprenticeship as an apothecary, he opened his own commercial laboratory enterprise. His business manufactured and sold a variety of chemicals and laboratory equipment. Accum, himself, gave fee based public lectures in practical chemistry and collaborated with research efforts at numerous other institutes of science
1769 Jean-de-Dieu Soult a French general and statesman, named Marshal of the Empire in 1804 and often called Marshal Soult. Soult would be one of the few French generals to emerge from the Peninsular War with his reputation largely intact. He was one of only six officers in French history to receive the distinction of Marshal General of France. The Duke also served three times as President of the Council of Ministers, or Prime Minister of France
1780 Jørgen Jørgensen a Danish adventurer during the Age of Revolution. During the Action of 2 March 1808 his ship was captured by the British. In 1809 he sailed to Iceland, declared the country independent from Denmark and pronounced himself its ruler. He was also a prolific writer of letters, papers, pamphlets and newspaper articles covering a wide variety of subjects, and was an associate of the famous botanists Joseph Banks and William Jackson Hooker for a period
1788 Infante Carlos Count of Molina the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma. As Carlos V he was the first of the Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain. He is often referred to simply as 'Don Carlos'. He was a reactionary angry with liberalism in Spain and the assaults on the Catholic Church. He claimed the throne of Spain after the death of his older brother King Ferdinand VII in 1833. His claim was contested by liberal forces loyal to the dead king's infant daughter. The result was the bloody First Carlist War. Don Carlos had support from Basque provinces and much of Catalonia, but it was not enough and he lost the war and never became king. His heirs continued the arch-conservative cause, fought two more "Carlist" wars and were active into the mid-20th century, but never obtained the throne
1790 John Tyler the tenth President of the United States. He was elected vice president on the 1840 Whig ticket with William Henry Harrison, and became president after his running mate's death in April 1841. Tyler was known as a supporter of states' rights, which endeared him to his fellow Virginians, yet his acts as president showed that he was willing to support nationalist policies as long as they did not infringe on the rights of the states. Still, the circumstances of his unexpected rise to the presidency and his possible threat to the ambitions of other potential presidential candidates left him estranged from both major parties in Washington. A firm believer in manifest destiny, President Tyler sought to strengthen and preserve the Union through territorial expansion, most notably the annexation of the independent Republic of Texas in his last days in office
1790 Carl Theodor Welcker a German law professor, politician and journalist.
1799 Edward Smith-Stanley 14th Earl of Derby an English statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. His record was unusual, since he is one of only four British Prime Ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However his ministries all lasted less than two years, and totalled 3 years 280 days
1802 Johann Moritz Rugendas a German painter, famous for his works depicting landscapes and ethnographic subjects in several countries in the Americas, in the first half of the 19th century. Rugendas is also the subject of the 2000 novel by César Aira, An Episode in the Life of a Landscape Painter
1811 José María San Martín born in Nacaome, Honduras to Colonel Joaquín de San Martín and Joaquina Fugón.
1815 Costache Caragiale a Romanian actor and theatre manager who had an important role in the development of the Romanian theatre.
1816 10th Dalai Lama the 10th Dalai Lama of Tibet.
1819 Edwin Drake an American oil driller, popularly credited with being the first to drill for oil in the United States.
1821 Frank Leslie an English-born American engraver, illustrator, and publisher of family periodicals.
1821 Karl Knies a German economist of the historical school of economics, best known as the author of Political Economy from the Standpoint of the Historical Method. Knies taught at the University of Heidelberg for over 30 years, and was perhaps the most theoretically-oriented economist of the older historical school
1822 Ivan Unkovsky an admiral, explorer and surveyor of the Imperial Russian Navy. After his navy years, Unkovsky participated in the opposition against Tsar Alexander II's legal system and was exiled from Russia in 1861
1824 Ludwig Büchner a German philosopher, physiologist and physician who became one of the exponents of 19th century scientific materialism.
1825 Francesco Faà di Bruno an Italian priest and advocate of the poor, and a leading mathematician of his era and a noted religious musician. In 1988 he was beatified by Pope John Paul He is the eponym of Faà di Bruno's formula
1826 Wilhelm Liebknecht a German social democrat and one of the principal founders of the SPD. His political career was a pioneering project combining Marxist revolutionary theory with practical, legal political activity. Under his leadership, the SPD grew from a tiny sect to become Germany's largest political party. He was the father of Karl Liebknecht and Theodor Liebknecht
1827 Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm Klinkerfues a German astronomer.
1829 Robert E. Rodes one of the youngest Confederate generals in the American Civil War, and the first of Robert Lee's divisional commanders not trained at West Point. His division led Stonewall Jackson's devastating surprise attack at the Battle of Chancellorsville; Jackson, on his deathbed, promoted Rodes to major general. Rodes then served in the corps of Richard Ewell at the Battle of Gettysburg and in the Overland Campaign, before that corps was sent to the Shenandoah Valley under Jubal Early, where Rodes was killed at the Third Battle of Winchester
1832 Theodor Gomperz born at Brno.
1832 Julius Mařák a Czech landscape painter and graphic designer.
1834 Girolamo Maria Gotti O.C.D. sometimes erroneously called Giuseppe Gotti, was a friar of the Discalced Carmelite Order, who served in various offices of the Holy See as a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
1835 Gustav Zander a Swedish physician, orthopedist and one of the originators of mechanotherapy. He is known for inventing a therapeutic method of exercise carried out by means of a special apparatus. He began his work in 1860s. He established the Zander Therapeutical Institute in Stockholm
1837 Jakub Husník a Czech painter, art teacher and inventor of the improved photolithography method.
1848 Aleksey Kuropatkin the Russian Imperial Minister of War from 1898 to 1904, and often held responsible for major Russian defeats in the Russian-Japanese War, most notably at the Battle of Mukden and the Battle of Liaoyang.
1852 Goby Eberhardt a German violinist, teacher and composer.
1853 Elihu Thomson an English engineer and inventor who was instrumental in the founding of major electrical companies in the United States, the United Kingdom and France.
1854 Friedrich Neelsen a German pathologist.
1859 Oscar F. Mayer a German American who founded the processed-meat firm Oscar Mayer that bears his name.
1860 Christen C. Raunkiær a Danish botanist, who was a pioneer of plant ecology. He is mainly remembered for his scheme of plant strategies to survive an unfavourable season and his demonstration that the relative abundance of strategies in floras largely corresponded to the Earth's climatic zones. This scheme, the Raunkiær system, is still widely used today and may be seen as a precursor of modern plant strategy schemes, e.g. Philip Grime's CSR system
1862 Adolfo Müller-Ury a Swiss-born American portrait painter and impressionistic painter of roses and still life.
1863 Walter James the fifth Premier of Western Australia and an ardent supporter of the federation movement.
1864 Paul Ranson a French painter and writer.