Born on March 30

1326 Ivan II of Moscow the Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1353. Until that date, he had ruled the towns of Ruza and Zvenigorod. He was the second son of Ivan Kalita, and succeeded his brother Simeon the Proud, who died of the Black Death
1432 Mehmed the Conqueror an Ottoman sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire. Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia with its reunification, and in Southeast Europe as far west as Bosnia. Being a highly regarded conqueror, Mehmed is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey and parts of the wider Muslim world. Among other things, Istanbul's Fatih district, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Fatih Mosque are named after him
1510 Antonio de Cabezón a Spanish Renaissance composer and organist. Blind from childhood, he quickly rose to prominence as performer and was eventually employed by the royal family. He was among the most important composers of his time and the first major Iberian keyboard composer
1551 Salomon Schweigger a German Lutheran theologian, minister, anthropologist and orientalist of the 16th century. He provided a valuable insight during his travels in the Balkans, Constantinople and the Middle East, and published a famous travel book of his exploits. He also published the first German language translation of the Qur'an
1632 John Proctor a farmer and tavern keeper in 17th-century Massachusetts. He was the son of John Proctor, and Martha Harper. During the Salem Witch Trials he was accused of witchcraft, convicted and hanged
1633 Frederick II Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg. He was also a successful and experienced general for the crowns of both Sweden and of Brandenburg, but is best remembered as the eponymous hero of Heinrich von Kleist's play Der Prinz von Homburg
1633 Miron Costin a Moldavian political figure and chronicler. His main work, Letopiseţul Ţărâi Moldovei was meant to extend Grigore Ureche's narrative, co vering events from 1594 to 1660. The Chronicles were first published in 1675
1640 John Trenchard (politician) an English politician.
1680 Angelo Maria Quirini an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
1697 Faustina Bordoni an Italian mezzo-soprano.
1700 Peter Artemiev a Russian Orthodox Deacon, a convert to Byzantine Catholicism, and one of the first martyrs of the Russian Catholic Church.
1705 August Johann Rösel von Rosenhof a German miniature painter, naturalist and entomologist. With his accurate, heavily detailed images of insects he was recognised as an important figure in modern entomology
1727 Tommaso Traetta an Italian composer.
1739 Maria Josepha of Bavaria Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Romans, Archduchess of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany etc. by her marriage to Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor. By birth, she was a Princess and Duchess of Bavaria as the daughter of Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Elector of Bavaria and Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria
1746 Francisco Goya a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. Goya was court painter to the Spanish Crown; throughout the Peninsular War he remained in Madrid, where he painted the portrait of Joseph Bonaparte, pretender to the Spanish throne, and documented the war in the masterpiece of studied ambiguity known as the Desastres de la Guerra. Through his works he was both a commentator on and chronicler of his era. The subversive imaginative element in his art, as well as his bold handling of paint, provided a model for the work of artists of later generations, notably Édouard Manet, Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon
1750 John Stafford Smith a British composer, church organist, and early musicologist. He was one of the first serious collectors of manuscripts of works by Johann Sebastian Bach
1754 Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier a French chemistry and physics teacher, and one of the first pioneers of aviation. He and the Marquis d'Arlandes made the first manned free balloon flight on 21 November 1783, in a Montgolfier balloon. He later died when his balloon crashed near Wimereux in the Pas-de-Calais during an attempt to fly across the English Channel. He and his companion, Pierre Romain, became the first known fatalities in an air crash
1756 Juan Antonio Llorente a Spanish historian.
1772 Johann Wilhelm Wilms a Dutch-German composer, best known for setting the poem Wien Neêrlands Bloed to music, which served as the Dutch national anthem from 1815 to 1932.
1775 Hieronymus Karl Graf von Colloredo-Mansfeld an Austrian corps commander during the Napoleonic Wars. He played an important part in the German campaign of 1813, contributing decisively to the coalition victory at the battle of Kulm
1776 Vasily Tropinin a Russian Romantic painter. Much of his life was spent as a serf; he didn't attain his freedom until he was more than forty years old. Three of his more important works are a portrait of Alexander Pushkin and paintings called The Lace Maker and The Gold-Embroideress
1777 Johann Nepomuk Schaller an Austrian sculptor. His most famous work is a bust of Beethoven, created at the request of the composer's friend Karl Holz. It was later presented to the Royal Philharmonic Society, London, on the occasion of the Beethoven Centennial
1777 Heinrich Rudolf Schinz a Swiss physician and naturalist.
1785 Henry Hardinge 1st Viscount Hardinge a British Army officer and politician. After serving in the Peninsula War and the Waterloo Campaign he became Secretary at War in Wellington's ministry. After a tour as Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1830 he became Secretary at War again in Sir Robert Peel's cabinet. He went on to be Governor-general of India at the time of the First Anglo-Sikh War and then Commander-in-Chief of the Forces during the Crimean War
1789 Franz Sieber a botanist and collector who travelled to Europe, the Middle East, Southern Africa and Australia.
1793 Juan Manuel de Rosas a politician, army officer and caudillo who ruled Buenos Aires Province and briefly the Argentine Confederation. Although born into a wealthy family, Rosas worked hard and independently amassed a personal fortune, acquiring huge grants of lands in the process. As was common in his era, Rosas formed a private militia, enlisting his workers, and took part in the factious disputes that had led to endless civil wars in his country. Victorious in warfare, and having acquired influence, vast landholdings and a private army loyal exclusively to himself, Rosas became the quintessential caudillo, as provincial warlords in the region were known. He eventually reached the rank of brigadier general, the highest in the Argentine army, and became the indisputable leader of the Federalist Party
1804 Salomon Sulzer an Austrian hazzan and composer. His family, which prior to 1813 bore the name of Levi, removed to Hohenems from Sulz in 1748. He was educated for the cantorate, studying first under the cantors of Endingen and Karlsruhe, with whom he traveled extensively, and later under Salomon Eichberg, cantor at Hohenems and Düsseldorf. In 1820 Sulzer was appointed cantor at Hohenems, where he modernized the ritual, and introduced a choir. At the instance of Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer of Vienna he was called to the Austrian capital as chief cantor in 1826. There he reorganized the song service of the synagogue, retaining the traditional chants and melodies, but harmonizing them in accordance with modern views
1805 Ferdinand Johann Wiedemann an Estonian linguist who researched Uralic languages, mostly Estonian. Wiedemann was also a botanist
1811 Robert Bunsen a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium and rubidium with Gustav Kirchhoff. Bunsen developed several gas-analytical methods, was a pioneer in photochemistry, and did early work in the field of organoarsenic chemistry. With his laboratory assistant, Peter Desaga, he developed the Bunsen burner, an improvement on the laboratory burners then in use. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff
1814 William Woolls an Australian botanist, clergyman and schoolmaster.
1815 Hermann Schmid an Austrian writer and theatre director.
1818 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen a German mayor and cooperative pioneer. Several credit union systems and cooperative banks have been named after Raiffeisen, who pioneered rural credit unions
1820 Anna Sewell an English novelist, best known as the author of the classic novel Black Beauty.
1820 Andrej Sládkovič a Slovak poet, critic, publicist and translator.
1821 François-Léon Benouville a French painter.
1825 Samuel B. Maxey an American soldier, lawyer, and politician from Paris, Texas, United States. He was a Major General for the Confederacy in the Civil War and later represented Texas in the U.S. Senate
1825 Theodor Kjerulf a Norwegian geologist and poet.
1828 François Bocion a Swiss artist and teacher.
1832 Roger Q. Mills a United States lawyer and politician. During the American Civil War, he served as an officer in the Confederate States Army. Afterwards he served in the United States Congress, first as a representative, and later as a senator
1843 Konstantin Staniukovich a Russian writer, remembered today mostly for his stories of the Russian Imperial Navy.
1844 Paul Verlaine a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international and French poetry
1848 Carlos Duke of Madrid the senior member of the House of Bourbon from 1887 until his death. He was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain under the name Carlos VII from 1868 , and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France under the name Charles XI after the death of his father in 1887
1849 Osip Aptekman a Russian revolutionary, member of the Land and Liberty, and one of the founders of the Black Repartition.
1852 Duchess Therese Petrovna of Oldenburg the youngest daughter of Duke Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg and his wife Princess Therese of Nassau-Weilburg.
1853 Joachim (Levitsky) a Russian Orthodox bishop and religious writer martyred by local Bolsheviks in Sevastopol, Ukraine by being crucified upside down on the royal doors of the cathedral's iconostasis. The exact date of his death is unclear, with dates ranging from 1918 to 1920 or even to "not later than April 1921" in various sources, and he is sometimes said merely to have "died at the hands of unknown bandits"
1853 Vincent van Gogh a Post-Impressionist painter of Dutch origin whose work—notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty, and bold color—had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. After years of painful anxiety and frequent bouts of mental illness, he died aged 37 from a gunshot wound, generally accepted to be self-inflicted
1854 Hermann Kövess von Kövessháza the final, and completely ceremonial, Commander-in-Chief of Austria-Hungary. He served as a generally competent and unremarkable commander in the Austro-Hungarian Army and was close to retirement in 1914 when The First World War broke out and he was given a command post
1856 Dora Hitz a Court Painter to the Romanian Royal Family, a member of the November Group and co-founder of the Berlin Secession.
1857 Gabriela Zapolska a Polish novelist, playwright, naturalist writer, feuilletonist, theatre critic and stage actress. Zapolska wrote 41 plays, 23 novels, 177 short stories, 252 works of journalism, one film script, and over 1,500 letters
1857 Léon Charles Thévenin a French telegraph engineer who extended Ohm's law to the analysis of complex electrical circuits.