March 31 events in history

307 After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Maximian
627 Battle of the Trench: Muhammad undergoes a 14-day siege at Medina (Saudi Arabia) by Meccan forces under Abu Sufyan
1146 Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade
1492 Queen Isabella of Castille issues the Alhambra Decree, ordering her 150,000 Jewish and Muslim subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion
1561 The city of San Cristóbal, Táchira is founded
1717 A sermon on "The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ" by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provokes the Bangorian Controversy
1774 American Revolutionary War: The Kingdom of Great Britain orders the port of Boston, Massachusetts closed pursuant to the Boston Port Act
1822 The massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following an attempted rebellion, depicted by the French artist Eugène Delacroix
1854 Commodore Matthew Perry signs the Treaty of Kanagawa with the Japanese government, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade
1866 The Spanish Navy bombs the harbor of Valparaíso, Chile
1877 The family with samurai antecedents that responded to the Saigō army in Ōita Nakatsu, rebels
1885 The United Kingdom establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland
1889 The Eiffel Tower is officially opened
1899 Malolos, capital of the First Philippine Republic, was captured by American forces
1901 1901 Black Sea earthquake
1903 Richard Pearse allegedly makes a powered flight in an early aircraft
1906 The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (later the National Collegiate Athletic Association) is established to set rules for college sports in the United States
1909 Serbia accepts Austrian control over Bosnia and Herzegovina
1909 Construction of the ill fated RMS Titanic begins
1910 Six North Staffordshire Pottery towns federate to form modern Stoke-on-Trent
1913 The Vienna Concert Society rioted during a performance of modernist music by Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Alexander von Zemlinsky, and Anton von Webern, causing a premature end to the concert due to violence; this concert became known as the Skandalkonzert
1917 The United States takes possession of the Danish West Indies after paying $25 million to Denmark, and renames the territory the United States Virgin Islands
1918 Massacre of ethnic Azerbaijanis is committed by allied armed groups of Armenian Revolutionary Federation and Bolsheviks. Nearly 12,000 Azerbaijani Muslims are killed
1918 Daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States for the first time
1921 The Royal Australian Air Force is formed
1930 The Motion Picture Production Code is instituted, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in film, in the U.S., for the next thirty-eight years
1931 An earthquake destroys Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000
1931 TWA Flight 599 crashes near Bazaar, Kansas, killing eight, including University of Notre Dame head football coach Knute Rockne
1933 The Civilian Conservation Corps is established with the mission of relieving rampant unemployment in the United States
1942 World War II: Japanese forces invade Christmas Island, then a British possession
1945 World War II: a defecting German pilot delivers a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1, the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft, to the Americans, the first to fall into Allied hands
1949 The Dominion of Newfoundland joins the Canadian Confederation and becomes the 10th Province of Canada
1951 Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau
1957 Elections to the Territorial Assembly of the French colony Upper Volta are held. After the elections PDU and MDV form a government
1958 In the Canadian federal election, the Progressive Conservatives, led by John Diefenbaker, win the largest percentage of seats in Canadian history, with 208 seats of 265
1959 The 14th Dalai Lama, crosses the border into India and is granted political asylum
1964 A coup d'état in Brazil establishes a military government, under the aegis of general Castelo Branco
1966 The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon
1970 Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth's atmosphere after 12 years in orbit
1979 The last British soldier leaves the Maltese Islands. Malta declares its Freedom Day (Jum il-Helsien)
1980 The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad operates its final train after being ordered to liquidate its assets because of bankruptcy and debts owed to creditors
1985 The first WrestleMania, the biggest wrestling event from the WWE (then the WWF), takes place in Madison Square Garden in New York
1986 Six metropolitan county councils are abolished in England
1990 Approximately 200,000 protestors take to the streets of London to protest against the newly introduced Poll Tax
1991 Georgian independence referendum, 1991: Nearly 99 percent of the voters support the country's independence from the Soviet Union
1992 The USS Missouri, the last active United States Navy battleship, is decommissioned in Long Beach, California
1994 The journal Nature reports the finding in Ethiopia of the first complete Australopithecus afarensis skull
2004 Iraq War in Anbar Province: In Fallujah, Iraq, four American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA, are killed after being ambushed