March 4 events in history

51 Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title princeps iuventutis (head of the youth)
306 Martyrdom of Saint Adrian of Nicomedia
852 Croatian Knyaz Trpimir I issues a statute, a document with the first known written mention of the Croats name in Croatian sources
932 Translation of the relics of martyr Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Prince of the Czechs
1152 Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans
1238 The Battle of the Sit River is fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia between the Mongol hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Rus'
1351 Ramathibodi becomes King of Siam
1386 Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) is crowned King of Poland
1461 Wars of the Roses in England: Lancastrian King Henry VI is deposed by his House of York cousin, who then becomes King Edward IV
1493 Explorer Christopher Columbus arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what is now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean
1519 Hernán Cortés arrives in Mexico in search of the Aztec civilization and its wealth
1628 The Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter
1665 English King Charles II declares war on the Netherlands marking the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War
1675 John Flamsteed is appointed the first Astronomer Royal of England
1681 Charles II grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania
1776 American Revolutionary War: The Continental Army fortifies Dorchester Heights with cannon, leading the British troops to abandon the Siege of Boston
1789 In New York City, the first Congress of the United States meets, putting the United States Constitution into effect. The United States Bill of Rights is written and proposed to Congress
1790 France is divided into 83 départements, cutting across the former provinces in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on ownership of land by the nobility
1791 The Constitutional Act of 1791 is introduced by the British House of Commons in London which envisages the separation of Canada into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario)
1791 Vermont is admitted to the United States as the fourteenth state
1794 The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is passed by the U.S. Congress
1804 Castle Hill Rebellion: Irish convicts rebel against British colonial authority in the Colony of New South Wales
1814 Americans defeat British forces at the Battle of Longwoods between London, Ontario and Thamesville, near present-day Wardsville, Ontario
1837 The city of Chicago is incorporated
1848 Carlo Alberto di Savoia signs the Statuto Albertino that will later represent the first constitution of the Regno d'Italia
1861 The first national flag of the Confederate States of America (the "Stars and Bars") is adopted
1865 The third and final national flag of the Confederate States of America is adopted by the Confederate Congress
1882 Britain's first electric trams run in east London
1890 The longest bridge in Great Britain, the Forth Bridge in Scotland, measuring 1,710 feet (520 m) long, is opened by the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII
1899 Cyclone Mahina sweeps in north of Cooktown, Queensland, with a 12 metres (39 ft) wave that reaches up to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inland, killing over 300
1908 The Collinwood school fire, Collinwood near Cleveland, Ohio, kills 174 people
1909 U.S. President William Taft used what became known as a Saxbe fix, a mechanism to avoid the restriction of the U.S. Constitution's Ineligibility Clause, to appoint Philander C. Knox as U.S. Secretary of State
1913 First Balkan War: The Greek army engages the Turks at Bizani, resulting in victory two days later
1913 The United States Department of Labor is formed
1917 Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first female member of the United States House of Representatives
1918 The USS Cyclops departs from Barbados and is never seen again, presumably lost with all hands in the Bermuda Triangle
1933 Frances Perkins becomes United States Secretary of Labor, the first female member of the United States Cabinet
1933 The Parliament of Austria is suspended because of a quibble over procedure – Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss initiates an authoritarian rule by decree
1941 World War II: The United Kingdom launches Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands; the first large scale British Commando raid
1943 World War II: The Battle of the Bismarck Sea in the South West Pacific comes to an end
1944 World War II: After the success of Big Week, the USAAF begins a daylight bombing campaign of Berlin
1945 Lapland War: Finland declares war on Nazi Germany
1957 The S&P 500 stock market index is introduced, replacing the S&P 90
1960 The French freighter La Coubre explodes in Havana, Cuba killing 100
1962 A Caledonian Airways Douglas DC-7 crashes shortly after takeoff from Cameroon, killing 111 – the worst crash of a DC-7
1966 A Canadian Pacific Air Lines DC-8-43 explodes on landing at Tokyo International Airport, killing 64 people
1970 French submarine Eurydice explodes underwater, resulting in the loss of the entire 57-man crew
1974 People magazine is published for the first time in the United States as People Weekly
1976 The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention is formally dissolved in Northern Ireland resulting in direct rule of Northern Ireland from London by the British parliament
1977 The 1977 Vrancea earthquake in eastern and southern Europe kills more than 1,500, mostly in the seriously damaged city of Bucharest, Romania