Born on March 9

1062 Herbert II Count of Maine Count of Maine from 1051 to 1062. He was a Hugonide, son of Hugh IV of Maine and Bertha of Blois
1098 Thoros of Edessa an Armenian ruler of Edessa at the time of the First Crusade. Thoros was a former officer in the Byzantine Empire and a lieutenant of Philaretos Brachamios. He was Armenian but practiced the Greek Orthodox faith
1213 Hugh IV Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy between 1218 and 1272. Hugh was the son of Odo III, Duke of Burgundy and Alice de Vergy
1249 Siegfried III (Archbishop of Mainz) Archbishop of Mainz from 1230 to 1249. He in 1244 granted freedom to the citizens of Mainz, who subsequently could run their affairs more independently though their own council; in law it remained an episcopal city
1285 Emperor Go-Nijō the 94th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from March 3, 1301 until September 10, 1308
1291 Cangrande I della Scala an Italian nobleman, the most celebrated of the della Scala family which ruled Verona from 1277 until 1387. Now perhaps best known as the leading patron of the poet Dante Alighieri, Cangrande was in his own day chiefly acclaimed as a successful warrior and autocrat. Between becoming sole ruler of Verona in 1311 and his death in 1329 he took control of several neighbouring cities, notably Vicenza, Padua and Treviso, and came to be regarded as the leader of the Ghibelline faction in northern Italy
1421 Francesco Sassetti an Italian banker.
1454 Amerigo Vespucci an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer who first demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts as initially conjectured from Columbus' voyages, but instead constituted an entirely separate landmass hitherto unknown to Afro-Eurasians. Colloquially referred to as the New World, this second super continent came to be termed "America", deriving its name from Americus, the Latin version of Vespucci's first name
1561 Archduke Wenceslaus of Austria a German prince and member of the House of Habsburg and since 1577 Grand Prior of the Order of Malta in Castile.
1564 David Fabricius a German pastor who made two major discoveries in the early days of telescopic astronomy, jointly with his eldest son, Johannes Fabricius.
1568 Aloysius Gonzaga an Italian aristocrat who became a member of the Society of Jesus. While still a student at the Roman College, he died as a result of caring for the victims of an epidemic. He was beatified in 1605, and canonized in 1726
1640 Jacques d'Agar a French portrait painter born in Paris. He was a scholar of Ferdinand Voet, and began life as an historical painter, but he soon abandoned history for portraiture, in which branch of art he became very successful. His son Charles d'Agar also became a portrait painter. In 1675 he was admitted into the Academy, and he became also painter in ordinary to the king and his court. Upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Agar, as a Protestant, was shut out from the Academy. He accordingly left France in 1682—never to return
1695 Martín Sarmiento a Spanish scholar, writer and Benedictine monk, illustrious representative of the Enlightenment in Spain.
1697 Friederike Caroline Neuber a German actress and theatre director. She is one of the most famous artists in the history of the German theater
1720 Philip Yorke 2nd Earl of Hardwicke an English politician.
1721 Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken wife of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt and one of the most learned women of her time.
1727 Johann Gottlieb Preller a German cantor, composer, and land surveyor.
1734 Francisco Bayeu y Subías an Aragonese painter, active in a Neoclassic style, whose main subjects were religious and historical themes.
1734 Vicente Antonio García de la Huerta a Spanish dramatist, educated at Salamanca. At Madrid he soon attracted attention by his literary arrogance and handsome person, and at an early age became chief of the National Library, a post from which he was dismissed owing to the intrigues of his numerous enemies. The publication of his unsatisfactory collection of Spanish plays entitled Theatro Hespañol exposed him to severe censures, which appear to have affected his reason. He died at Madrid, without carrying into effect his avowed intention of reviving the national drama. His Agamemnon vengado derives from Sophocles, his faire is translated from Voltaire, and even his once famous Raquel, though Spanish in subject, is classic in form
1737 Josef Mysliveček a Czech composer who contributed to the formation of late eighteenth-century classicism in music. Mysliveček provided his younger friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with significant compositional models in the genres of symphony, Italian serious opera, and violin concerto; both Wolfgang and his father Leopold Mozart considered him an intimate friend from the time of their first meetings in Bologna in 1770 until he betrayed their trust over the promise of an operatic commission for Wolfgang to be arranged with the management of the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. He was close to the Mozart family, and there are frequent references to him in the Mozart correspondence
1743 Johann Kaspar Füssli a Swiss painter, entomologist and publisher.
1749 Honoré Gabriel Riqueti comte de Mirabeau a leader of the early stages of the French revolution. A noble, before 1789 he was involved in numerous scandals that left his reputation in ruins. However during the early years of the French Revolution he rose to the top and became the voice of the people. A successful orator, he was the leader of the moderate position, favoring a constitutional monarchy built on the model of Great Britain. When he died he was a great national hero, even though support for his moderate position was slipping away. The later discovery that starting in 1790 he was in the pay of the king and the Austrian enemies of France caused his disgrace. Historians are deeply split on whether he was a great leader who almost saved the nation from the Terror, or a venal demagogue lacking political or moral values, or a traitor in the pay of the enemy
1753 Jean Baptiste Kléber a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. His military career started in Habsburg service, but his plebeian ancestry hindered his opportunities. Eventually, he volunteered for the French Army in 1792, and rose through the ranks
1756 Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1756–1808) a member of the House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and a Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and a Duchess in Saxony by birth. Through her marriage to Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, Louise was also a member of the House of Mecklenburg and Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 24 April 1785 through 1 January 1808
1758 Franz Joseph Gall a neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.
1763 William Cobbett an English pamphleteer, farmer and journalist, who was born in Farnham, Surrey. He believed that reforming Parliament and abolishing the rotten boroughs would help to end the poverty of farm labourers, and he attacked the borough-mongers, sinecurists and "tax-eaters" relentlessly. He was also against the Corn Laws, a tax on imported grain. Early in his career, he was a loyalist supporter of King and Country: but later he joined and successfully publicised the radical movement, which led to the Reform Bill of 1832, and to his winning the parliamentary seat of Oldham. Although he was not a Catholic, he became a fiery advocate of Catholic Emancipation in Britain. Through the seeming contradictions in Cobbett's life, his opposition to authority stayed constant. He wrote many polemics, on subjects from political reform to religion, but is best known for his book from 1830, Rural Rides, which is still in print today
1771 Henry Clinton (Napoleonic Wars) a British Army officer and a general officer during the Napoleonic Wars.
1775 Constance Mayer a French painter of portraits, allegorical subjects, miniatures and genre works. She had "a brilliant but bitter career."
1777 Aleksander Orłowski a Polish painter and sketch artist, and a pioneer of lithography in the Russian Empire.
1791 Nicolas Levasseur a French bass, particularly associated with Rossini roles.
1806 Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Elder a German history painter born in Mainz. He was an older brother to prehistorian Ludwig Lindenschmit , and father to history painter Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Younger
1806 Edwin Forrest a prominent nineteenth-century American Shakespearean actor. His legendary feud with the British actor William Charles Macready helped spark the deadly Astor Place Riot of 1849
1809 Bettino Ricasoli an Italian statesman.
1811 Ernst Julius Hähnel a German sculptor and Professor at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts.
1813 Timofey Granovsky a founder of mediaeval studies in the Russian Empire.
1813 Walter S. Gurnee served as Mayor of Chicago for the Democratic Party. The town of Gurnee, Illinois is named for him
1814 Taras Shevchenko a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer. His literary heritage is regarded to be the foundation of modern Ukrainian literature and, to a large extent, the modern Ukrainian language. Shevchenko is also known for many masterpieces as a painter and an illustrator
1815 David Davis (Supreme Court justice) a United States Senator from Illinois and associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. He also served as Abraham Lincoln's campaign manager at the 1860 Republican National Convention, along with Ward Hill Lamon, one of Lincoln's former law partners who served as the President's primary bodyguard during the Civil War. Davis and Lamon, along with another Lincoln associate, Leonard Swett, helped engineer Lincoln's nomination
1820 Samuel Blatchford an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from April 3, 1882 until his death.
1822 Alexander Campbell (Canadian senator) an English-born, Upper Canadian statesman and politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation.
1822 Thomas Vernon Wollaston a prominent English entomologist and malacologist, becoming especially known for his studies of Coleoptera inhabiting several North Atlantic archipelagoes. He was well-placed socially. His religious beliefs effectively prevented him from supporting Charles Darwin's theories after 1859, but Darwin remained a close friend. Wollaston supported the theory that continental lands had once extended outward farther to encompass some of the island groups he studied
1824 Leland Stanford an American tycoon, industrialist, politician and founder of Stanford University. Migrating to California from New York at the time of the Gold Rush, he became a successful merchant and wholesaler, and continued to build his business empire. He served one two-year term as governor of California after his election in 1861, and later eight years as senator from the state. As president of Southern Pacific and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific, he had tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California. Many consider him a robber baron
1833 Frederick A. Schroeder an American industrialist and politician of German descent. As mayor of Brooklyn—before the city's merger with New York—and New York state senator, Schroeder earned a reputation for his fight against the political machine of the Brooklyn ring and for more efficient city government
1838 Ludwig Gumplowicz one of the founders of European sociology. He was also a jurist and political scientist who taught constitutional and administrative law at the University of Graz
1839 Phoebe Knapp a composer of music for hymns and an organist.
1840 Henri Cazalis a French physician who was a symbolist poet and man of letters and wrote under the pseudonyms of Jean Caselli and Jean Lahor. To describe several of his artist friends who were avant-garde painters he coined the term Les Nabis. The term drew a parallel between the way these painters aimed to revitalize painting and the way the ancient prophets had rejuvenated Israel. Possibly the nickname arose because "most of them wore beards, some were Jews and all were desperately earnest"
1845 Wilhelm Pfeffer a German botanist and plant physiologist born in Grebenstein.
1846 Emil Warburg a German physicist who during his career was professor of physics at the Universities of Strassburg, Freiburg and Berlin. He was president of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft 1899-1905. He was a friend of Albert Einstein
1847 Martin Pierre Marsick a Belgian violin player, composer and teacher. His violin was made by Antonio Stradivari in 1705 and has since become known as the Ex Marsick Stradivarius. It was the instrument of David Oistrakh from 1966 to 1974
1848 Aleksei Zerchaninov a Russian Greek-Catholic priest.