Died on March 9

670 Hasan ibn Ali an important figure in Islam. He is the son of Ali and Fatimah. The latter is the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. After his father's death, he briefly succeeded him as the Caliph , before retiring to Madinah and entering into an agreement with the first Umayyad ruler, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, who assumed the Caliphate. Hasan is one of the five people of the Ahl al-Kisa, as well as a member of the Ahl al-Bayt. Hasan ibn Ali is 2nd Imam of Shia Islam. Hasan is also highly respected by the Sunni as the grandson of Muhammad
886 Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi an astrologer, astronomer, and Islamic philosopher, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad. He was not a major innovator and as an astrologer he was not intellectually rigorous. Nevertheless, he wrote a number of practical manuals on astrology that profoundly influenced Muslim intellectual history and, through translations, that of western Europe and Byzantium
1202 Sverre of Norway the King of Norway from 1184 to 1202. He married Margareta Eriksdotter, the daughter of the Swedish king Eric IX, by whom he had the daughter Kristina Sverresdotter
1422 Jan Želivský a Czech priest and a radical representative of the Hussite Reformation.
1440 Frances of Rome an Italian saint who was a wife, mother, mystic, organizer of charitable services and a Benedictine oblate who founded a religious community of oblates, who share a common life without religious vows.
1444 Leonardo Bruni an Italian humanist, historian and statesman. He has been called the first modern historian
1463 Catherine of Bologna an Italian cloistered nun, artist and saint.
1477 Henry IV Duke of Mecklenburg from 1422 to 1477 Duke of Mecklenburg.
1483 Margaret of Savoy Countess of Saint-Pol the eldest surviving daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy. She was the wife of Margrave John IV of Montferrat and later the wife of Pierre II de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, of Brienne, de Ligny, Marle and Soissons. Margaret's numerous descendants included Mary, Queen of Scots, and King Henry IV of France
1566 David Rizzio an Italian courtier, born close to Turin, a descendant of an ancient and noble family still living in Piedmont, the Riccio Counts de San Paolo et Solbrito, who rose to become the private secretary of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary's husband, Lord Darnley, is said to have been jealous of their friendship, because of rumours that he had made Mary pregnant, and joined in a conspiracy of Protestant nobles, led by Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven, to murder him. The murder was the catalyst for the downfall of Darnley and had serious consequences for Mary's subsequent career
1588 Pomponio Amalteo an Italian painter of the Venetian school.
1617 Alonso de Ribera a Spanish soldier and twice Spanish royal governor of Chile.
1649 Henry Rich 1st Earl of Holland an English courtier, peer and soldier. A member of the influential Rich family, he was the son of Robert Rich, 1st Earl of Warwick, and his wife, Penelope Devereux, and the younger brother of Robert, 2nd Earl of Warwick
1649 Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell of Hadham an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Capell. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War and was executed on the orders of parliament in 1649
1649 James Hamilton 1st Duke of Hamilton a Scottish nobleman and influential political and military leader during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
1654 Pedro de Toledo 1st Marquis of Mancera a Spanish nobleman general, colonial administrator, and diplomat who served as Viceroy of Galicia and Peru from December 18, 1639 to September 20, 1648.
1661 Cardinal Mazarin an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. He was a noted collector of art and jewels, particularly diamonds, and he bequeathed the "Mazarin diamonds" to Louis XIV in 1661, some of which remain in the collection of the Louvre museum in Paris. His personal library was the origin of the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris
1688 Claude Mellan a French engraver and painter.
1706 Johann Pachelbel a German composer, organist and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak. He composed a large body of sacred and secular music, and his contributions to the development of the chorale prelude and fugue have earned him a place among the most important composers of the middle Baroque era
1709 Ralph Montagu 1st Duke of Montagu an English courtier and diplomat.
1724 Ernest Frederick I Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen a duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
1798 Margravine Friederike of Brandenburg-Schwedt Duchess of Württemberg and ancestor to many European royals of the 19th and 20th century.
1800 Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorff a German architect and architectural theoretician, and one of the most significant representatives of early German Neoclassicism. His work included Wörlitz House in Wörlitzer Park near Dessau, one of the earliest classical houses on the European continent. His most well-known student was Friedrich Gilly, the teacher of Karl Friedrich Schinkel
1806 Federico Carlos Gravina y Nápoli a Spanish Admiral during the American Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. He died of wounds sustained during the Battle of Trafalgar. Spanish explorer Jacinto Caamaño named the Gravina Island in Alaska in his honor
1808 Joseph Bonomi the Elder an Italian architect and draughtsman notable for his activity in England.
1810 Ozias Humphry a leading English painter of portrait miniatures, later oils and pastels, of the 18th century. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1791, and in 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King
1821 Nicholas Pocock a British artist best known for his many detailed paintings of naval battles during the age of sail.
1822 Edward Daniel Clarke an English naturalist, mineralogist and traveller.
1823 Jean Henri van Swinden a Dutch mathematician and physicist who taught in Franeker and Amsterdam.
1825 Anna Laetitia Barbauld a prominent English poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, and children's author.
1836 Antoine Destutt de Tracy a French Enlightenment aristocrat and philosopher who coined the term "ideology".
1839 Charles Lallemand now Texas, and finally returned to France to serve as governor of Corsica.
1840 George Gleig a Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church.
1840 Pierre Dupont de l'Étang a French general of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as a political figure of the Bourbon Restoration.
1843 Christian August Pohlenz a German composer and conductor.
1844 Otto Pfeilizer-Frank Baron Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Pfeilitzer gen. Franck, sometimes referred to as Otto Romanovich Franck or Otto Romanovich Pfeilitzer-Franck was a Russian statesman, the 6th governor of Taganrog
1847 Mary Anning a British fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important finds she made in Jurassic marine fossil beds in the cliffs along the English Channel at Lyme Regis in the county of Dorset in Southwest England. Her work contributed to fundamental changes in scientific thinking about prehistoric life and the history of the Earth
1851 Hans Christian Ørsted a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, an important aspect of electromagnetism. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century
1857 Dominic Savio an Italian adolescent student of Saint John Bosco. He was studying to be a priest when he became ill and died at the age of 14, possibly from pleurisy
1867 Princess Sophie of Saxony the eighth and youngest child of John of Saxony and his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria and a younger sister of Albert of Saxony and George of Saxony. Through her marriage to Duke Karl-Theodor in Bavaria, Sophie was a member of the House of Wittelsbach and a Duchess in Bavaria
1870 Théodore Labarre a French harpist and composer. He lived in Paris and in London and was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1823 as well as the Légion d'honneur in 1862. He was a professor of harp at the Conservatoire de Paris since 1867
1873 Charles Knight (publisher) an English publisher, editor and author.
1873 Jules Bourcier a French naturalist.
1878 Mirza Fatali Akhundov a celebrated Azerbaijani author, playwright, philosopher, and founder of modern literary criticism, "who acquired fame primarily as the writer of European-inspired plays in the Azeri Turkic language". Akhundzade singlehandedly opened a new stage of development of Azerbaijani literature and is also considered one of the founders of modern Iranian literature. He was also the founder of materialism and atheism movement in Azerbaijan and one of forerunners of modern Iranian nationalism
1881 Caroline Amalie of Augustenburg queen consort of Denmark as the second spouse of King Christian VIII between 1839 and 1848.
1882 Giovanni Lanza an Italian politician and the eighth Prime Minister from 1869 to 1873.
1883 Arnold Toynbee a British economic historian also noted for his social commitment and desire to improve the living conditions of the working classes.
1886 William S. Clark a professor of chemistry, botany and zoology, a colonel during the American Civil War, and a leader in agricultural education. Raised and schooled in Easthampton, Massachusetts, Clark spent most of his adult life in Amherst, Massachusetts. He graduated from Amherst College in 1848 and obtained a doctorate in chemistry from Georgia Augusta University in Göttingen in 1852. He then served as professor of chemistry at Amherst College from 1852 to 1867. During the Civil War, he was granted leave from Amherst to serve with the 21st Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, eventually achieving the rank of colonel and the command of that unit
1887 Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein a Polish noblewoman who pursued a forty-year liaison/relationship with Franz Liszt. She was also an amateur journalist and essayist and it is conjectured that she did much of the actual writing of several of Liszt's publications, especially his Life of Chopin. She pursued an enormous correspondence with Liszt and many others which is of vital historical interest. She admired and encouraged Hector Berlioz, as is clear from their extensive correspondence. Berlioz dedicated Les Troyens to Princess Carolyne. She was portrayed by Capucine in the 1960 film Song Without End
1888 William I German Emperor the King of Prussia and the first German Emperor , as well as the first Head of State of a united Germany. Under the leadership of William and his Minister President Otto von Bismarck, Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the establishment of the German Empire. Despite his long support of Bismarck as Minister President, however, William held strong reservations about some of Bismarck's more reactionary policies, including his anti-Catholicism and tough handling of subordinates. Contrary to Bismarck, William was described as polite, gentlemanly, and while a staunch conservative, more open to certain classical liberal ideas than his grandson Wilhelm II