March 9 events in history

632 The Last Sermon (Khutbah, Khutbatul Wada') of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
1009 First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg
1230 Bulgarian tsar Ivan Asen II defeats Theodore of Epirus in the Battle of Klokotnitsa
1276 Augsburg becomes an Imperial Free City
1500 The fleet of Pedro Álvares Cabral leaves Lisbon for the Indies. The fleet will discover Brazil which lies within boundaries granted to Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas
1566 David Rizzio, private secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots, is murdered in the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh, Scotland
1765 After a campaign by the writer Voltaire, judges in Paris posthumously exonerate Jean Calas of murdering his son. Calas had been tortured and executed in 1762 on the charge, though his son may have actually committed suicide
1796 Napoléon Bonaparte marries his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais
1811 Paraguayan forces defeat Manuel Belgrano at the Battle of Tacuarí
1841 The U.S. Supreme Court rules in the United States v. The Amistad case that captive Africans who had seized control of the ship carrying them had been taken into slavery illegally
1842 Giuseppe Verdi's third opera, Nabucco, receives its première performance in Milan; its success establishes Verdi as one of Italy's foremost opera writers
1842 The first documented discovery of gold in California occurs at Rancho San Francisco, six years before the California Gold Rush
1847 Mexican–American War: The first large-scale amphibious assault in U.S. history is launched in the Siege of Veracruz
1862 American Civil War: The USS Monitor and CSS Virginia fight to a draw in the Battle of Hampton Roads, the first battle between two ironclad warships
1896 Prime Minister Francesco Crispi resigns following the Italian defeat at the Battle of Adowa
1908 Inter Milan was founded on Football Club Internazionale, following a schism from the Milan Cricket and Football Club
1910 The Westmoreland County coal strike, involving 15,000 coal miners represented by the United Mine Workers, begins
1916 Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa leads nearly 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against the border town of Columbus, New Mexico
1925 Pink's War: The first Royal Air Force operation conducted independently of the British Army or Royal Navy begins
1933 Great Depression: President Franklin D. Roosevelt submits the Emergency Banking Act to Congress, the first of his New Deal policies
1944 World War II: Japanese troops counter-attack American forces on Hill 700 in Bougainville in a battle that would last five days
1944 World War II: Soviet Army planes attack Tallinn, Estonia
1945 The Bombing of Tokyo by the United States Army Air Forces begin, one of the most destructive bombing raids in history
1945 World War II: A coup d'état by Japanese forces in French Indochina removes the French from power
1946 Bolton Wanderers stadium disaster at Burnden Park, Bolton, England, kills 33 and injures hundreds more
1954 McCarthyism: CBS television broadcasts the See It Now episode, "A Report on Senator Joseph McCarthy", produced by Fred Friendly
1956 Soviet forces suppress mass demonstrations in the Georgian SSR, reacting to Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policy
1957 A magnitude 8.3 earthquake in the Andreanof Islands, Alaska triggers a Pacific-wide tsunami causing extensive damage to Hawaii and Oahu
1959 The Barbie doll makes its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York
1960 Dr. Belding Hibbard Scribner implants for the first time a shunt he invented into a patient, which allows the patient to receive hemodialysis on a regular basis
1961 Sputnik 9 successfully launches, carrying a human dummy nicknamed Ivan Ivanovich, and demonstrating that Soviet Union was ready to begin human spaceflight
1967 Trans World Airlines Flight 553, a Douglas DC-9-15, crashes in a field in Concord Township, Ohio following a mid-air collision with a Beechcraft Baron, killing 26
1976 Forty-two people die in the 1976 Cavalese cable car disaster, the worst cable-car accident to date
1977 The Hanafi Siege: In a thirty-nine-hour standoff, armed Hanafi Muslims seize three Washington, D.C., buildings, killing two and taking 149 hostage
1989 Financially troubled Eastern Air Lines filed for bankruptcy
1991 Massive demonstrations are held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade
1997 Comet Hale–Bopp: Observers in China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia are treated to a rare double feature as an eclipse permits Hale-Bopp to be seen during the day
2011 Space Shuttle Discovery makes its final landing after 39 flights