March events in history

March 18, 37 The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius's will and proclaims Caligula emperor
March 28, 37 Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate
March 4, 51 Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title princeps iuventutis (head of the youth)
March 7, 161 Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by his adoptive sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus
March 17, 180 Marcus Aurelius dies leaving Commodus the sole emperor of the Roman Empire
March 28, 193 Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus
March 15, 221 Liu Bei, a Chinese warlord and member of the Han royal house, declares himself emperor of Shu-Han and claims his legitimate succession to the Han Dynasty
March 11, 222 Emperor Elagabalus is assassinated, along with his mother, Julia Soaemias, by the Praetorian Guard during a revolt. Their mutilated bodies are dragged through the streets of Rome before being thrown into the Tiber
March 18, 235 Emperor Alexander Severus and his mother Julia Mamaea are murdered by legionaries near Mogontiacum (modern Mainz), ending the Severan dynasty
March 20, 235 Maximinus Thrax is proclaimed emperor. He is the first foreigner to hold the Roman throne
March 7, 238 Roman subjects in the province of Africa revolt against Maximinus Thrax and elect Gordian I as emperor
March 22, 238 Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman Emperors
March 15, 280 Sun Hao of Eastern Wu surrenders to Sima Yan which began the Jin Dynasty
March 1, 293 Emperor Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi ("Four Rulers of the World")
March 10, 298 Roman Emperor Maximian concludes his campaign in North Africa against the Berbers, and makes a triumphal entry into Carthage
March 4, 306 Martyrdom of Saint Adrian of Nicomedia
March 31, 307 After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Maximian
March 14, 313 Emperor Jin Huidi is executed by Liu Cong, ruler of the Xiongnu state (Han Zhao)
March 1, 317 Crispus and Constantine II, sons of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and Licinius Iunior, son of Emperor Licinius, are made Caesares
March 7, 321 Emperor Constantine I decrees that the dies Solis Invicti (sun-day) is the day of rest in the Empire
March 1, 350 Vetranio is asked by Constantina, sister of Constantius II, to proclaim himself Caesar
March 15, 351 Constantius II elevates his cousin Gallus to Caesar, and puts him in charge of the Eastern part of the Roman Empire
March 5, 363 Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90,000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a campaign which would bring about his own death
March 28, 364 Roman Emperor Valentinian I appoints his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor
March 25, 421 Venice is founded at twelve o'clock noon, according to legend
March 16, 455 Emperor Valentinian III is assassinated by two Hunnic retainers while training with the bow on the Campus Martius (Rome)
March 17, 455 Petronius Maximus becomes, with support of the Roman Senate, emperor of the Western Roman Empire
March 3, 473 Gundobad (nephew of Ricimer) nominates Glycerius as emperor of the Western Roman Empire
March 29, 502 King Gundobad issues a new legal code (Lex Burgundionum) at Lyon that makes Gallo-Romans and Burgundians subject to the same laws
March 2, 537 Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoth army under king Vitiges began the siege of the capital. Belisarius conducts a delaying action outside the Flaminian Gate; he and a detachment of his bucellarii are almost cut off
March 21, 537 Siege of Rome: King Vitiges attempts to assault the northern and eastern city walls, but is repulsed at the Praenestine Gate, known as the Vivarium, by the defenders under the Byzantine generals Bessas and Peranius
March 12, 538 Vitiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Byzantine general, Belisarius
March 26, 590 Emperor Maurice proclaims his son Theodosius as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire
March 30, 598 Balkan Campaign: The Avars lift the siege at the Byzantine stronghold of Tomis. Their leader Bayan I retreats north of the Danube River after the Avaro-Slavic hordes are decimated by the plague
March 13, 624 Battle of Badr: a key battle between Muhammad's army – the new followers of Islam and the Quraish of Mecca. The Muslims won this battle, known as the turning point of Islam, which took place in the Hejaz region of western Arabia
March 17, 624 Led by Muhammad, the Muslims of Medina defeat the Quraysh of Mecca in the Battle of Badr
March 31, 627 Battle of the Trench: Muhammad undergoes a 14-day siege at Medina (Saudi Arabia) by Meccan forces under Abu Sufyan
March 21, 630 Emperor Heraclius returns the True Cross, one of the holiest Christian relics, to Jerusalem
March 9, 632 The Last Sermon (Khutbah, Khutbatul Wada') of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
March 18, 633 Ridda Wars: The Arabian Peninsula is united under the central authority of Caliph Abu Bakr
March 20, 673 Emperor Tenmu of Japan assumes the Chrysanthemum throne at the Palace of Kiyomihara in Asuka
March 25, 708 Pope Constantine succeeds Pope Sisinnius as the 88th pope
March 21, 717 Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid
March 25, 717 Theodosios III resigns the throne to the Byzantine Empire to enter the clergy
March 3, 724 Empress Genshō abdicates the throne in favor of her nephew Shōmu who becomes emperor of Japan
March 28, 845 Paris is sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collects a huge ransom in exchange for leaving
March 4, 852 Croatian Knyaz Trpimir I issues a statute, a document with the first known written mention of the Croats name in Croatian sources
March 22, 871 Æthelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army at the Battle of Marton
March 13, 874 The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople
March 4, 932 Translation of the relics of martyr Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Prince of the Czechs