Died on May 1

408 Arcadius Eastern Roman Emperor from 395 to 408. He was the eldest son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Western Emperor Honorius. A weak ruler, his reign was dominated by a series of powerful ministers and by his wife, Aelia Eudoxia
418 Saint Amator bishop of Auxerre from 388 until his death on May 1, 418. Saint Amator's feast day is celebrated on May 1
680 Muawiyah I the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan. Muawiyah was politically adept in dealing with the Eastern Roman Empire and was therefore made into a secretary by Muhammad. During the first and second caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar , he fought with the Muslims against the Byzantines in Syria
922 Al-Murtada Muhammad the second imam of the Zaidi state of Yemen, who ruled from 911 to 912 and was a respected religious scholar.
1118 Matilda of Scotland Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry I.
1171 Diarmait Mac Murchada a King of Leinster in Ireland. In 1167, he was deprived of his kingdom by the High King of Ireland – Ruaidri Ua Conchobair. The grounds for the dispossession were that MacMurrough had, in 1152, abducted Derbforgaill, the wife of the King of Breifne, Tiernan O'Rourke. To recover his kingdom, MacMurrough solicited help from King Henry II of England. In return, MacMurrough pledged an oath of allegiance to Henry, who sent troops in support. As a further thanks for his reinstatement, MacMurrough's daughter Aoife was married to Richard de Clare, the 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Henry II then mounted a larger second invasion in 1171 to ensure his control over Strongbow, resulting in the Lordship of Ireland. MacMurrough was later known as Diarmait na nGall
1219 Raoul I of Lusignan the second son of Hugues de Lusignan, Co-Seigneur de Lusignan in 1164 , and wife, married before 1162, Orengarde N, who died in 1169, and grandson of Hugh VIII. He became Seigneur d'Issoudun before 1200, Count of Eu by marriage, Seigneur de Melle, de Chize, de Civray and de La Mothe. He was buried at the Priory of Fontblanche, in Exoudun
1236 Iltutmish the founder of the Delhi Sultanate.
1240 Jacques de Vitry a French canon regular who was a noted theologian and chronicler of his era. He was elected bishop in 1214 and made cardinal in 1229
1256 Mafalda of Portugal a Portuguese infanta , later Queen consort of Castile for a brief period. She was the second youngest daughter of King Sancho I of Portugal and Dulce of Aragon
1277 Stephen Uroš I of Serbia the King of Serbia from 1243 to 1276, succeeding his half-brother Stefan Vladislav. His full style and title was King in Christ, God faithful, King of Serbia and Maritime Lands
1308 Albert I of Germany a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination.
1312 Paul I Šubić of Bribir a Croatian leader and most outstanding member of the Šubić noble family from Bribir. He was the Ban of Croatia from 1275 and Lord of all of Bosnia from 1305 until his death in 1312. He ruled from his seat in the fortified town of Bribir, where he erected, along with his castle, the three-aisled basilica of Mary inside the Franciscan convent
1447 Louis VII Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt from 1413 until 1443. He was a son of Stephen III and Taddea Visconti
1539 Isabella of Portugal an Infanta of Portugal, by birth, and a Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Germany, Italy, Spain, Naples and Sicily, Duchess of Burgundy etc. as the spouse of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and Maria of Aragon. She served as regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse for long periods
1555 Pope Marcellus II the 222nd pope of the Catholic Church from 9 April 1555 until his death 22 days later on 1 May 1555.
1557 Ōuchi Yoshinaga a 16th-century Kyushu warrior who was invited by Sue Harukata, who had just taken control of the Ōuchi clan, to serve as the official head of the Ōuchi while Sue pulled the strings from behind. Yoshinaga was the younger brother of Ōtomo Yoshishige. Following Mōri Motonari's victory over Sue in 1555 at Miyajima, Yoshinaga's position became quite vulnerable. Yoshinaga was forced to commit suicide in 1557, effectively causing the Ōuchi clan to become extinct
1572 Pope Pius V Pope from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572. He is venerated as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church. He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman rite within the Latin Church. Pius V declared Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church and patronized prominent sacred music composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
1656 Carlo Contarini the 100th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on March 27, 1655 until his death a little over a year later.
1668 Frans Luycx a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter at the imperial court of Emperor Ferdinand III in Vienna. He is most famous for his portraits of Emperor's family and court
1679 Esaias Reusner a German lutenist and composer.
1700 John Dryden an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made Poet Laureate in 1668.
1718 Tsarevna Yevdokia Alekseyevna of Russia the eldest daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.
1718 Tsarevna Catherine Alekseyevna of Russia the fifth daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.
1731 Johann Ludwig Bach a composer and violinist.
1733 Nicolas Coustou a French sculptor and academic.
1738 Charles Howard 3rd Earl of Carlisle a British statesman and member of the peerage of England.
1772 Gottfried Achenwall a German philosopher, historian, economist, jurist and statistician. He is counted among the inventors of statistics
1793 Johann Gerhard Reinhard Andreae an Hanoverian natural scientist, chemist, geologist, court pharmacist and alchemist in the Age of Enlightenment. Internationally noted as a polymath, he was known throughout Europe particularly for his extensive natural history collections and for his pioneering and influential scientific work on soil and their uses for modern agriculture. He was a friend of many of the great scientists of the day, such as Benjamin Franklin, Pieter van Musschenbroek and George Shaw. The genus Andreaea, the type genus of the family Andreaeaceae of mosses, was named in his honour by his friend, the botanist Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart. Andreae was also noted as a major philanthropist in Hanover
1796 Alexandre Guy Pingré a French canon regular, astronomer and naval geographer.
1800 Margravine Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt a daughter of Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia. By her marriage to Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, she became Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel
1809 François Laurent d'Arlandes a French marquis, soldier and a pioneer of hot air ballooning. He and Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier made the first manned free balloon flight on 21 November 1783, in a Montgolfier balloon
1813 Jacques Delille a French poet and translator. He was born at Aigueperse in Auvergne and died in Paris
1813 Jean-Baptiste Bessières a Marshal of France of the Napoleonic Era. His younger brother, Bertrand, followed in his footsteps and eventually became a Divisional General. Their cousin, Géraud-Pierre-Henri-Julien also served Napoleon I as a diplomat and Imperial official
1820 Lorenzo Litta an Italian littérateur and churchman, who became a Cardinal.
1840 Pierre Jean François Turpin a French botanist and illustrator. He is considered one of the greatest floral and botanical illustrators during the Napoleonic Era and afterwards. As an artist, Turpin was largely self-taught
1840 Joseph Williamson (philanthropist) best known for the tunnels which were constructed under his direction in the Edge Hill area of Liverpool, England. His philanthropy earned him the nickname the King of Edge Hill, whilst his tunnel-building activity earned him posthumous nicknames, including the Mole of Edge Hill and the Mad Mole
1849 Isaac Bernays chief rabbi in Hamburg.
1850 Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville a French zoologist and anatomist.
1851 Augustin Schoeffler a French saint and martyr in the Roman Catholic Church and a member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society. He was a priest in Lorraine who joined the Foreign Missions of Paris. He worked as a missionary to Indochina and was one of two French missionaries killed in northern Vietnam between 1847 and 1851. At the time, it was illegal to proselytize in Vietnam
1852 Jean-Louis Bonnard a French Roman Catholic missionary to Vietnam, one of the Martyrs of Vietnam, canonized in 1988.
1854 Jean Coralli a French dancer and choreographer and later held the esteemed post of First Balletmaster of the Paris Opera Ballet. He is best known for the creation of the Romantic ballet Giselle which he choreographed in tandem with another French dancer, Jules Perrot
1856 John Wilbur (Quaker minister) a prominent American Quaker minister and religious thinker who was at the forefront of a controversy that led to "the second split" in the Religious Society of Friends in the United States.
1860 Anders Sandøe Ørsted a Danish politician and jurist. He served as the Prime Minister of Denmark in 1853-1854
1860 Giacomo Panizza conductor at La Scala, Milan for 13 years, during which time, he composed two operas and thirteen ballets.
1863 Francesco Nullo an Italian patriot, military officer and a merchant, a close friend and confidant of Giuseppe Garibaldi. He supported independence movements in Italy and Poland. He was a participant of the Five Days of Milan and other events of the revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Sicilian Expedition of the Thousand in 1860 and the Polish January Uprising in 1863. His military career ended with him receiving the rank of general in Poland, shortly before his death in the Battle of Krzykawka
1868 Tom Dula a former Confederate soldier, who was tried, convicted, and hanged for the murder of his fiancée, Laura Foster. The trial and hanging received national publicity from newspapers such as The New York Times, thus turning Dula's story into a folk legend. While the murder happened in Wilkes County, North Carolina, the trial, conviction, and execution took place in Statesville. There was considerable controversy surrounding his conviction and execution. In subsequent years, a folk song was written , and many oral traditions were passed down, regarding the sensational occurrences surrounding the murder of Foster, and Dula's subsequent execution. The Kingston Trio recorded a hit version of the murder ballad in 1958
1869 Frédéric Cailliaud a French naturalist, mineralogist and conchologist. He was born, and died, in Nantes
1870 Gabriel Lamé a French mathematician who contributed to the theory of partial differential equations by the use of curvilinear coordinates, and the mathematical theory of elasticity.
1873 David Livingstone a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with M. Stanley on 10 November 1871 gave rise to the popular quotation "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Perhaps one of the most popular national heroes of the late 19th century in Victorian Britain, Livingstone had a mythic status, which operated on a number of interconnected levels: Protestant missionary martyr, working-class "rags to riches" inspirational story, scientific investigator and explorer, imperial reformer, anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of commercial empire. His fame as an explorer helped drive forward the obsession with discovering the sources of the River Nile that formed the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of the African continent