Born on May 10

213 Claudius Gothicus Roman Emperor from 268 to 270. During his reign he fought successfully against the Alamanni and scored a crushing victory against the Goths at the Battle of Naissus. He died after succumbing to a plague that ravaged the provinces of the Empire
1265 Emperor Fushimi the 92nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1287 through 1298
1291 Gilbert de Clare 8th Earl of Gloucester an English nobleman and a military commander in the Scottish Wars. In contrast to most English earls at the time, his main focus lay in the pursuit of war rather than in domestic political strife. He was the son of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, and Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward The older Gilbert died when his son was only four years old, and the younger Gilbert was invested with his earldoms at the young age of sixteen. Almost immediately, he became involved in the defence of the northern border, but later he was drawn into the struggles between Edward II and some of his barons. He was one of the Lords Ordainers who ordered the expulsion of the king's favourite Piers Gaveston in 1311. When Gaveston was killed on his return in 1312, Gloucester helped negotiate a settlement between the perpetrators and the king
1491 Suzanne Duchess of Bourbon suo jure Duchess of Bourbon and Auvergne from 1503 to her death. Her husband was Charles de Bourbon
1509 Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby an English nobleman.
1521 John Ernest Duke of Saxe-Coburg a Duke of Saxe-Coburg.
1604 Jean Mairet a classical French dramatist who wrote both tragedies and comedies.
1631 Flavio Chigi (1631-1693) an Italian Catholic Cardinal and Duke of Ariccia. He was Cardinal-Nephew to Pope Alexander VII and became a powerful political force inside the Roman Catholic Church during the latter half of the 17th century
1671 Alivardi Khan the Nawab of Bengal during 1740–1756. He toppled the Nasiri Dynasty of the Nawabs and took powers of the Nawab. He is also one of the few Mughal-era leaders known for his victory during the Battle of Burdwan against the Maratha Empire
1697 Jean-Marie Leclair a Baroque violinist and composer. He is considered to have founded the French violin school. His brothers Jean-Marie Leclair the younger , Pierre Leclair and Jean-Benoît Leclair were also musicians
1714 Sophie Charlotte Ackermann a German actress from Berlin.
1724 Johan Zoutman a Dutch naval figure and Rear Admiral who fought at the Battle of Dogger Bank in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. Zoutman also fought in the American Revolutionary War
1725 John Hope (botanist) a Scottish physician and botanist. He is best known as an early supporter of Carl Linnaeus's system of classification, largely because he published very little of the research that might have made him a name in plant physiology
1727 Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot Baron de Laune a French economist and statesman. Originally considered a physiocrat, he is today best remembered as an early advocate for economic liberalism
1748 Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot a French ornithologist.
1752 Pierre de Ruel marquis de Beurnonville a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and later a marshal of France.
1754 Asmus Jacob Carstens a Danish-German painter, one of the most committed artists of German Neoclassicism. His career was erratic, partly because of his difficult personality, and the majority of his large projects were left incomplete, or subsequently destroyed. Much of what survives is in the form of drawings, many using "a schematic, pale colouring as a timid and humble accessory to the dominating figure-drawing", that were planned for large fresco commissions that never materialized
1755 Robert Gray (sea captain) known for his achievements in connection with two trading voyages to the northern Pacific coast of North America, between 1790 and 1793, which pioneered the American maritime fur trade in that region. In the course of those voyages, Gray explored portions of that coast and, in 1790, completed the first American circumnavigation of the world. Perhaps his most remembered accomplishment from his explorations was his coming upon and then naming of the Columbia River, in 1792 while on his second voyage
1756 Singu Min the fourth king of the Konbaung dynasty of Myanmar. The king, who came to power amid controversy, largely put an end to his father Hsinbyushin's policy of territorial expansion, which had severely depleted the kingdom's manpower and resources. He stopped his father's latest war against Siam at his accession, effectively ceding Lan Na to the Siamese. Likewise, he took no action when the Laotian states stopped paying tribute in 1778. The only campaigns were in Manipur, where the Burmese army was forced to put down four rebellions throughout his reign
1759 Thomas Blount (statesman) an American Revolutionary War veteran and statesman from the state of North Carolina.
1760 Johann Peter Hebel a German short story writer, dialectal poet, evangelical theologian and pedagogue, most famous for a collection of Alemannic lyric poems and one of German tales.
1760 Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle a French army officer of the French Revolutionary Wars. He is known for writing the words and music of the Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin in 1792, which would later be known as La Marseillaise and become the French national anthem
1760 Charles de Bonchamps a French politician and leader of the Vendéan insurrection of Royalists against the Republic during the French Revolution.
1770 Louis-Nicolas Davout a Marshal of the Empire during the Napoleonic Era. His prodigious talent for war along with his reputation as a stern disciplinarian, earned him the title "The Iron Marshal". He is ranked along with Masséna and Lannes as one of Napoleon's finest commanders. He was one of the few commanders during the Napoleonic Wars who was never defeated on the field. His loyalty and obedience to Napoleon were absolute. During his lifetime, Davout's name was commonly spelled Davoust, which is how it appears on the Arc de Triomphe and in much of the correspondence between Napoleon and his generals
1775 Pierre Claude Pajol a French cavalry general and military commander during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and political figure.
1775 Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle a French cavalry general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, often called "The Hussar General". He first gained fame for his role in the Capitulation of Stettin. Over the course of his short career, he became known as a daring adventurer and was credited with many exploits. Eventually, he fought on every front and was killed at the Battle of Wagram
1776 George Thomas Smart an English musician.
1784 Carlo Filangieri a Neapolitan soldier and statesman. He was the son of Gaetano Filangieri, a celebrated philosopher and jurist
1788 Augustin-Jean Fresnel a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both theoretically and experimentally
1788 Catherine Pavlovna of Russia the fourth daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. She became the Queen of Württemberg upon her marriage to her first cousin Crown Prince William who eventually became King William I of Württemberg in 1816
1795 Augustin Thierry a French historian.
1798 John Forbes Royle born in Kanpur in 1798. Entering the service of the East India Company as assistant surgeon, he devoted himself to studying botany and geology, and made large collections among the Himalaya Mountains. He also investigated the medical properties of the plants of Hindustan and the history of their uses among the native races. The results of these investigations appeared in an essay On the Antiquity of Hindu Medicine. For nearly ten years he held the post of superintendent of the East India Company's botanic garden in the Himalayas at Saharanpur. In 1837 he was appointed to the professorship of materia medica in King's College London, which he held till 1856. From 1838 onwards be conducted a special department of correspondence, relating to vegetable products, at the East India House, and at the time of his death he had just completed there an extensive and valuable museum of technical products from the East Indies. In 1851 he superintended the Indian department of the Great Exhibition. He died at Acton near London on 2 January 1858
1799 François-Isidore Gagelin a French missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society in Vietnam. He died a martyr, and became the first French martyr of the 19th century in Vietnam. He was born in Montperreux, Doubs. He left for Vietnam in 1821. In 1826, when Emperor Minh Mạng ordered all missionaries to gather at the capital Huế, he fled to the south to Đồng Nai in Cochinchina. He was captured once and released
1799 Christodoulos Hatzipetros a Greek military leader during the Greek War of Independence, who became a general and adjutant to King Otto of Greece after Independence.
1805 Alexander Braun a German botanist from Regensburg, Bavaria. His research centered on the morphology of plants
1810 E. Cobham Brewer the compiler of Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, and The Reader's Handbook, Victorian reference works.
1812 William Henry Barlow an English civil engineer of the 19th century, particularly associated with railway engineering projects. Barlow was involved in many engineering enterprises. He was engineer for the Midland Railway on its London extension and designed the company's London terminus at St Pancras
1813 Montgomery Blair a politician and lawyer from Maryland. Despite belonging to a prominent slave-holding family, Blair was an abolitionist and a loyal member of the Cabinet of Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War
1820 Hermann Wilhelm Ebel a German philologist.
1820 Charles Moore (botanist) an Australian botanist. He arrived in Sydney on 14 January 1848 and took up the position of Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, a position he held until 5 May 1896. In this time he undertook several trips in eastern New South Wales as a plant and seed collector
1823 John Sherman an American Republican representative and senator from Ohio during the Civil War and into the late nineteenth century. He also served as both Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of State and was the principal author of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Sherman ran for the Republican presidential nomination three times, coming closest in 1888, but never winning. His brothers included General William Tecumseh Sherman of Civil War fame, Charles Taylor Sherman, a federal judge in Ohio, and Hoyt Sherman, an Iowa banker
1824 Jean-Léon Gérôme a French painter and sculptor in the style now known as Academicism. The range of his oeuvre included historical painting, Greek mythology, Orientalism, portraits and other subjects, bringing the Academic painting tradition to an artistic climax. He is considered one of the most important painters from this academic period, and in addition to being a painter, he was also a teacher with a long list of students
1825 August von Pelzeln an Austrian ornithologist. He was a grandson to novelist Karoline Pichler
1826 Henry Clifton Sorby an English microscopist and geologist. His major contribution was the development of techniques for studying iron and steel with microscopes. This paved the way for the mass-production of steel
1827 William Windom an American politician from Minnesota. He served as U.S. Representative from 1859 to 1869, and as U.S. Senator from 1870 to January 1871, from March 1871 to March 1881, and from November 1881 to 1883. He also served as Secretary of the Treasury from March to November 1881, and from 1889 to 1891. He was a Republican. He was the great-grandfather of the actor named after him, William Windom
1830 François-Marie Raoult a French chemist who conducted research into the behavior of solutions, especially their physical properties.
1832 Dmitry Petrovich Maksutov an Imperial Russian Navy rear-admiral who was the last Governor of Russian America. He has streets dedicated to his memory in Sitka and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
1838 John Wilkes Booth an American stage actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre, in Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865. Booth was a member of the prominent 19th-century Booth theatrical family from Maryland and, by the 1860s, was a well-known actor. He was also a Confederate sympathizer, vehement in his denunciation of Lincoln, and strongly opposed the abolition of slavery in the United States
1838 James Bryce 1st Viscount Bryce a British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.
1840 Hadzhi Dimitar one of the most prominent Bulgarian voivods and revolutionaries working for the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule.