Died on May 10

689 Prince Kusakabe a Japanese imperial crown prince from 681 until his death. He was the second son of Emperor Temmu. His mother was the empress Unonosarara, today known as Empress Jitō
965 Hedwig of Saxony a member of the Ottonian dynasty and a descendant of Charlemagne. She was married to Hugh the Great. Their son, Hugh Capet was the founder of the Capetian dynasty
1290 Rudolf II Duke of Austria Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 to 1283, jointly with his elder brother Albert I, who succeeded him.
1403 Katherine Swynford the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimated during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II, although with the provision that not they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England
1424 Emperor Go-Kameyama the 99th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He ruled from 1383 to October 21, 1392, becoming the last Emperor of the Southern Court. His personal name was Hironari
1482 Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli an Italian astrologer, mathematician, and cosmographer.
1493 Colin Campbell 1st Earl of Argyll a Scottish nobleman.
1521 Sebastian Brant a German humanist and satirist. He is best known for his satire Das Narrenschiff
1566 Leonhart Fuchs a German physician and botanist. His chief notability is as the author of a large book about plants and their uses as medicines, i.e. a Herbal Book. It was first published in 1542 in Latin. It has about 500 accurate and detailed drawings of plants, which were printed from woodcuts. The drawings are the book's most notable advance on its predecessors. Although drawings were in use beforehand in other Herbal books, Fuchs' Herbal book proved and emphasized high-quality drawings as the most telling way to specify what a plant name stands for
1569 John of Ávila a Spanish priest, preacher, scholastic author, and religious mystic, who has been declared a saint and Doctor of the Church by the Catholic Church. He is called the "Apostle of Andalusia", for his extensive ministry in that region
1641 Johan Banér a Swedish Field Marshal in the Thirty Years' War.
1652 Jacques-Nompar de Caumont duc de La Force a marshal of France and peer of France. He was the son of a Huguenot, Francois de Caumont, lord of Castelnau, and Philippe de Beaupoil. He survived the Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, but his father and older brother Armand were killed
1657 Gustav Horn Count of Pori a Swedish/Finnish soldier and politician. He was the youngest son of Field Marshal Carl Horn and Agneta von Dellwig, born while his father was imprisoned in Örbyhus Castle, after the defeat against the Russians
1667 Marie Louise Gonzaga wife of two Polish kings, Władysław IV Vasa and John II Casimir Vasa, and as such queen of Poland. She was born in Paris to Charles I, Duke of Mantua, and Catherine of Guise
1670 Claude Vignon a leading French painter and engraver working in the Baroque manner.
1691 John Birch (soldier) an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1646 and 1691. He fought for the Parliamentary cause in the English civil war
1692 Sarah Osborne one of the first three women to be accused of witchcraft in the Salem witch trials of 1692.
1704 Ezéchiel du Mas Comte de Mélac a career soldier in the French army under King Louis XIV and war minister Louvois.
1707 Johann Ernst III Duke of Saxe-Weimar a duke of Saxe-Weimar.
1710 Georg Dietrich Leyding a German composer and organist associated with the North German school.
1717 John Hathorne a merchant and magistrate of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Salem, Massachusetts. He is best known for his early and vocal role as one of the leading judges in the Salem witch trials
1726 Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke of St Albans an illegitimate son of King Charles II of England by his mistress Nell Gwynne.
1733 Barton Booth one of the most famous dramatic actors of the first part of the 18th century.
1737 Emperor Nakamikado the 114th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1739 Cosmas Damian Asam a German painter and architect during the late Baroque period. Born in Benediktbeuern, he moved to Rome in 1711 to study at the Accademia di San Luca with Carlo Maratta. There, he could see the fresco Ascent of Christ by Melozzo da Forlì in the Basilica Santi Apostoli. Melozzo's innovative techniques of foreshortening influenced Asam's works. In 1713 Asam won the Academy's first prize for his drawing of Miracle of Saint Pio. He worked with his brother Egid Quirin and their joint projects are often attributed to the "Asam Brothers". These include the Asam Church in Munich and Innsbruck Cathedral. Cosmas Damian died in Munich
1743 Melusine von der Schulenburg Duchess of Kendal a long-time mistress to King George I of Great Britain. Her middle name was probably given in reference to the Melusine legends
1758 Christian Gottlieb Jöcher a German academic, librarian and lexicographer.
1760 Christoph Graupner a German harpsichordist and composer of high Baroque music who lived and worked at the same time as Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Philipp Telemann and George Frideric Handel.
1764 Picander the pseudonym of Christian Friedrich Henrici , a German poet and librettist for many of the cantatas which Johann Sebastian Bach composed in Leipzig. Henrici studied law at Wittenberg and Leipzig. He started writing to supplement his income, and continued to write even after he had developed a career as a civil servant
1774 Louis XV of France a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached maturity in 1723, his kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans as Regent of France; the duke was his maternal great-uncle, as well as first cousin twice removed patrilineally. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom
1775 Marie Magdalene Charlotte Ackermann a German actress. She was the daughter of the actors Konrad Ernst Ackermann and Sophie Charlotte Ackermann
1775 Caroline Matilda of Great Britain Queen of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1775 as the wife of King Christian VII.
1784 Antoine Court de Gébelin a former Protestant pastor, born at Nîmes, who initiated the interpretation of the Tarot as an arcane repository of timeless esoteric wisdom in 1781.
1787 William Watson (scientist) an English physician and scientist who was born and died in London. His early work was in botany, and he helped to introduce the work of Carolus Linnaeus into England. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1741 and vice president in 1772
1794 Princess Élisabeth of France a French princess and the youngest sibling of King Louis XVI. During the French Revolution, she remained beside the king and his family and was executed at Place de la Révolution in Paris during the Terror
1798 George Vancouver an English officer of the British Royal Navy, best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon. He also explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia
1802 Johann Martin von Elmpt a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. A German nobleman who entered the Russian service after first serving in France, he went on to command troops in many of the Empire's wars during the reign of Catherine the Great
1807 Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur comte de Rochambeau a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping America win independence during the American Revolution. During this time, he served as commander-in-chief of the French Expeditionary Force which embarked from France in order to help the American Continental Army fight against British forces
1809 Peter Karl Ott von Bátorkéz joined the Austrian army and fought in the wars against the Kingdom of Prussia, Ottoman Turkey, and the First French Republic in the last half of the 18th century. During the French Revolutionary Wars, he rose in rank to general officer and twice campaigned against the army of Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy. He played a key role in the Marengo campaign in 1800. He was Proprietor of an Austrian Hussar regiment from 1801 to 1809
1813 Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger a German entomologist and zoologist.
1817 Jean-Sifrein Maury a French cardinal, archbishop, and bishop of Montefiascone.
1818 Paul Revere an American silversmith, engraver, early industrialist, and a patriot in the American Revolution. He is most famous for alerting the Colonial militia to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride"
1822 Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard a French abbé and instructor of the deaf.
1822 Paolo Ruffini an Italian mathematician and philosopher.
1829 Thomas Young (scientist) an English polymath. Young made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology. He "made a number of original and insightful innovations" in the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs before Jean-François Champollion eventually expanded on his work. He was mentioned by, among others, William Herschel, Hermann von Helmholtz, James Clerk Maxwell, and Albert Einstein
1833 François Andrieux a French man of letters and playwright.
1838 Heinrich Marx a lawyer and the father of the socialist philosopher Karl Marx.
1842 Amos Eaton considered the founder of the modern scientific prospectus in education, which was a radical departure from the American liberal arts tradition of classics, religious classes, lecture, and recitation. Eaton co-founded the Rensselaer School in 1824 with Stephen van Rensselaer III "in the application of science to the common purposes of life". His books in the eighteenth century were among the first published for which a systematic treatment of the United States was attempted, and in a language that all could read. His teaching laboratory for botany in the 1820s was the first of its kind in the country. Eaton's popular lectures and writings inspired numerous thinkers, in particular women, whom he encouraged to attend his public talks on experimental philosophy. Emma Willard would found the Troy Female Seminary , and Mary Mason Lyon, the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Eaton held the rank of senior professor at Rensselaer until his death in 1842
1846 Franciszek Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki an important Polish politician of the first half of the 19th century, prince and minister of the treasury in the Congress Kingdom of Poland. He is known as one of the most prominent economists and financiers of his era
1849 Hokusai a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period. He was influenced by such painters as Sesshu, and other styles of Chinese painting. Born in Edo , Hokusai is best known as author of the woodblock print series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji which includes the internationally recognized print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, created during the 1820s