Died on May 12

805 Æthelhard a Bishop of Winchester then an Archbishop of Canterbury in medieval England. Appointed by King Offa of Mercia, Æthelhard had difficulties with both the Kentish monarchs and with a rival archiepiscopate in southern England, and was deposed around 796 by King Eadberht III Præn of Kent. By 803, Æthelhard, along with the Mercian King Coenwulf, had secured the demotion of the rival archbishopric, once more making Canterbury the only archbishopric south of the Humber in Britain. Æthelhard died in 805, and was considered a saint until his cult was suppressed after the Norman Conquest in 1066
1003 Pope Sylvester II Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003. Born Gerbert d'Aurillac , he was a prolific scholar and teacher. He endorsed and promoted study of Arab/Greco-Roman arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy, reintroducing to Europe the abacus and armillary sphere, which had been lost to Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era. He is said to be the first to introduce in Europe the decimal numeral system using the Arabic numerals after his studies at the University of al-Karaouine in Morocco. He was the first French Pope
1012 Pope Sergius IV Pope and the ruler of the Papal States from 31 July 1009 to his death in 1012.
1090 Liutold of Eppenstein Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona from 1077 to 1090, succeeding Duke Berthold II of Zähringen.
1112 Henry Count of Portugal the first member of the House of Burgundy to rule the County of Portugal.
1148 Roger III Duke of Apulia the Norman duke of Apulia from 1135. He was the eldest son of King Roger II of Sicily and Elvira of Castile
1182 Valdemar I of Denmark King of Denmark from 1157 until his death in 1182.
1260 Constance of Toulouse the daughter of Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse and his second wife Beatrice of Béziers.
1333 Imelda Lambertini the patroness of First Holy Communicants.
1465 Thomas Palaiologos Despot in Morea from 1428 until the Ottoman conquest during 1460. After the desertion of his older brother to the Turks in 1460, Thomas Palaiologos became the legitimate claimant to the Byzantine throne, a claim he maintained during his exile in Italy
1470 Demetrios Palaiologos or Demetrius Palaeologus , Despot in the Morea de facto 1436–1438 and 1451–1460 and de jure 1438–1451, previously governor of Lemnos 1422–1440, and of Mesembria 1440–1451. He would have been the legitimate claimant to the Byzantine throne after 1453, until his desertion to the Ottomans in 1460
1490 Joanna Princess of Portugal a Portuguese saint, Regent and princess of the House of Aviz, daughter of King Afonso V of Portugal and his first wife Isabella of Coimbra.
1634 George Chapman an English dramatist, translator, and poet. He was a classical scholar whose work shows the influence of Stoicism. Chapman has been identified as the Rival Poet of Shakespeare's sonnets by William Minto, and as an anticipator of the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. Chapman is best remembered for his translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, and the Homeric Batrachomyomachia
1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl of Strafford an English statesman and a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War. He served in Parliament and was a supporter of King Charles From 1632–39 he was Lord Deputy of Ireland. Recalled to England, he became a leading advisor to the king, attempting to strengthen the royal position against Parliament. When Parliament condemned him to death, Charles signed the death warrant and Wentworth was executed
1642 Safi of Persia Shah of Iran from 1629 to 1642. He was the sixth ruler of the Safavid dynasty
1684 Edme Mariotte a French physicist and priest.
1692 Princess Luisa Cristina of Savoy a Princess of Savoy by birth and the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy. She married her uncle Prince Maurice of Savoy but had no children. She was the owner of the future Villa della Regina. She was a first cousin of Louis XIV of France and Charles II of England
1699 Lucas Achtschellinck a Flemish landscape painter.
1708 Adolphus Frederick II Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz the first Duke of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz, reigning from 1701 until his death. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a part of the Holy Roman Empire
1711 Andrzej Chryzostom Załuski a seventeenth century Polish preacher, translator, prolific writer, Chancellor of the Crown and Bishop.
1738 Charles III William Margrave of Baden-Durlach Margrave of Baden-Durlach between 1709 and 1738. He was the son of Margrave Frederick Magnus of Baden-Durlach and Augusta Maria of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. In 1715, he established Karlsruhe , where he built his residence. Karlsruhe has since grown to a large city. With the consolidation of public finances and the creation of a reliable administration, he laid the foundations for the reform policies of his grandson, Charles Frederick
1748 Thomas Lowndes (astronomer) the founder of the Lowndean professorship of astronomy at Cambridge University, England.
1753 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier a Swiss mathematician known for his work on the zodiacal light problem, for his very close relationship with Isaac Newton, for his role in the Newton Leibniz calculus controversy, and for originating the "push" or "shadow" theory of gravitation. He also developed and patented a method of perforating jewels for use in clocks
1759 Lambert-Sigisbert Adam born in Nancy, the eldest son of sculptor Jacob-Sigisbert Adam.
1784 Abraham Trembley a Swiss naturalist. He is best known for being the first to study freshwater polyps or hydra and for being among the first to develop experimental zoology. His mastery of experimental method has led some historians of science to credit him as the "father of biology"
1788 Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg a field-marshal in the armies of the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic. From 13 November 1750 to 1766 he was the Captain-General of the Netherlands, where he was known as the Duke of Brunswick or Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Another brother was Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick who led the Allied Anglo-German army during the Seven Years' War
1792 Charles Simon Favart a French dramatist.
1796 Johann Uz born at Ansbach.
1801 Nicholas Repnin an Imperial Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1803 Karl von Eckartshausen a German Catholic mystic, author, and philosopher.
1805 Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim the 71st Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, formally the Order of John of Jerusalem, by then better known as the Knights of Malta, being the first German to be elected to the office. It was under his rule that the Order lost their island home to France, after ruling there since 1530. This effectively marked the end of their sovereignty over an independent state, dating from the time of the Crusades
1831 Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars an eminent French botanist known for his work collecting and describing orchids from the three islands of Madagascar, Mauritius and Réunion.
1832 Heinrich Christian Macklot a German naturalist.
1838 Jędrzej Śniadecki a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. His achievements include the creation of modern Polish terminology in the field of chemistry
1842 Walenty Wańkowicz a Belarusian painter.
1843 Charlotte von Kalb a German writer who associated with poets Friedrich Schiller, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Hölderlin and Jean Paul.
1845 János Batsányi a Hungarian poet.
1845 August Wilhelm Schlegel a German poet, translator, critic, and a foremost leader of German Romanticism. His translations of Shakespeare made the English dramatist's works into German classics
1850 Frances Sargent Osgood an American poet and one of the most popular women writers during her time. Nicknamed "Fanny," she was also famous for her exchange of romantic poems with Edgar Allan Poe
1854 Melchior Berri a well-known Swiss architect.
1854 Luigi Lambruschini an Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in the mid nineteenth century.
1856 Jacques Philippe Marie Binet a French mathematician, physicist and astronomer born in Rennes; he died in Paris, France, in 1856. He made significant contributions to number theory, and the mathematical foundations of matrix algebra which would later lead to important contributions by Cayley and others. In his memoir on the theory of the conjugate axis and of the moment of inertia of bodies he enumerated the principle now known as Binet's theorem. He is also recognized as the first to describe the rule for multiplying matrices in 1812, and Binet's formula expressing Fibonacci numbers in closed form is named in his honour, although the same result was known to Abraham de Moivre a century earlier
1859 Sergey Aksakov a 19th-century Russian literary figure remembered for his semi-autobiographical tales of family life, as well as his books on hunting and fishing.
1860 Charles Barry an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens. He is known for his major contribution to the use of Italianate architecture in Britain, especially the use of the Palazzo as basis for the design of country houses, city mansions and public buildings. He also developed the Italian Renaissance garden style for the many gardens he designed around country houses
1863 Radama II the son and heir of Queen Ranavalona I and ruled from 1861 to 1863 over the Kingdom of Madagascar, which controlled virtually the entire island. Radama's rule, although brief, was a pivotal period in the history of the Kingdom of Madagascar. Under the unyielding and often harsh 33-year rule of his mother, Queen Ranavalona I, Madagascar had successfully preserved its cultural and political independence from French and British designs. Rejecting the queen's policy of isolationism and Christian persecution, Radama II permitted religious freedom and re-opened Madagascar to European influence. Under the terms of the Lambert Charter, which Radama secretly contracted in 1855 with French entrepreneur Joseph-François Lambert while Ranavalona still ruled, the French were awarded exclusive rights to the exploitation of large tracts of valuable land and other lucrative resources and projects. This agreement, which was later revoked by Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony, was key to establishing France's claim over Madagascar as a protectorate and, in 1896, as a colony
1864 J. E. B. Stuart a United States Army officer from the U.S. state of Virginia who later became a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. He was known to his friends as "Jeb", from the initials of his given names. Stuart was a cavalry commander known for his mastery of reconnaissance and the use of cavalry in support of offensive operations. While he cultivated a cavalier image , his serious work made him the trusted eyes and ears of Robert Lee's army and inspired Southern morale
1867 Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard Gerhard a German archaeologist. He was co-founder and secretary of the first international archaeological society
1876 Henri-François-Alphonse Esquiros a French writer born in Paris. He usually wrote with the name Alphonse Esquiros
1876 Georgi Benkovski the pseudonym of Gavril Gruev Hlatev , a Bulgarian revolutionary and leading figure in the organization and direction of the Bulgarian anti-Ottoman April Uprising of 1876 and apostle of its 4th Revolutionary District.
1876 Andrew Wynter an English physician and author.