Born on May 13

1112 Ulric II Margrave of Carniola the Margrave of Istria from 1098 until circa 1107 and Carniola from 1098 until his death. He was the second son of Ulric I and Sophia, a daughter of Bela I of Hungary. He was thus of royal blood
1133 Hōnen the religious reformer and founder of the first independent branch of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism called Jōdo-shū. In the related Jōdo Shinshū sect, he is considered the Seventh Patriarch. Hōnen became a monk of the Tendai sect at an early age, but grew disaffected, and sought an approach to Buddhism that anyone could follow, even during the perceived Age of Dharma Decline. After discovering the writings of Chinese Buddhist, Shan-tao, he undertook the teaching of rebirth in the Pure Land of Amitabha through reciting the Buddha's name, or nembutsu
1179 Theobald III Count of Champagne Count of Champagne from 1197 to his death. He was the younger son of Henry I, Count of Champagne and Marie, a daughter of Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He succeeded as Count of Champagne in 1197 upon the death of his older brother Henry II
1254 Marie of Brabant Queen of France Queen consort of France.
1333 Reginald III Duke of Guelders Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen from 1343 to 1361, and again in 1371. He was the son of Reginald II of Guelders and of Eleanor of Woodstock, daughter of Edward II of England
1567 Don Giovanni de' Medici an Italian military commander, diplomat and architect.
1588 Ole Worm a Danish physician and antiquary.
1597 Cornelis Schut a Flemish Baroque painter, draughtsman and engraver active in Italy and Antwerp.
1624 Aleksander Kazimierz Sapieha a Polish nobleman and bishop of Samogitia since 1660 and Wilno since 1667.
1625 Carlo Maratta an Italian painter, active mostly in Rome, and known principally for his classicizing paintings executed in a Late Baroque Classical manner. Although he is part of the classical tradition stemming from Raphael, he was not exempt from the influence of Baroque painting and particularly in his use of colour. His contemporary and friend, Giovanni Bellori, wrote an early biography on Maratta
1638 Richard Simon (priest) a French priest and longtime Oratorian, who was an influential biblical critic, orientalist and controversialist.
1655 Pope Innocent XIII born as Michelangelo dei Conti and was Pope from 8 May 1721 to his death in 1724. He is the last pope to date to take the pontifical name of "Innocent" upon his election
1668 Thomas Teddeman an English admiral of the 17th century. His name was also written as Teddiman or Teddyman
1699 Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo 1st Marquis of Pombal an 18th-century Portuguese statesman. He was Secretary of the State of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered today to have been the de facto head of government. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. He implemented sweeping economic policies in Portugal to regulate commercial activity and standardize quality throughout the country. Pombal was instrumental in weakening the grip of the Inquisition. The term Pombaline is used to describe not only his tenure, but also the architectural style which formed after the great earthquake
1712 Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff the son of Joachim Engelke von Bernstorff, Chamberlain to the elector of Hanover.
1713 Alexis Clairaut a prominent French mathematician, astronomer, geophysicist, and intellectual.
1717 Maria Theresa the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress
1730 Charles Watson-Wentworth 2nd Marquess of Rockingham KG, PC , styled The Hon. Charles Watson-Wentworth before 1733, Viscount Higham between 1733 and 1746, Earl of Malton between 1746 and 1750 and The Marquess of Rockingham in 1750, was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Prime Minister of Great Britain. He became the patron of many Whigs, known as the Rockingham Whigs, and served as a leading Whig grandee. He served in only two high offices during his lifetime , but was nonetheless very influential during his one and a half years of service
1735 Horace Coignet a French amateur violinist, singer and composer. He was active in Lyons as a pattern-designer and dealer in embroidered goods, as an official clerk and as musical director of the city from 1794. He became the music instructor to the Duchesse d'Aumont in Paris , and later returned to Lyons where he served on the directorial board of the conservatory. He was known as a gifted violinist, and composed harpsichord pieces, romances, a set of Trois duos concertants de violon et fugues, a revolutionary hymn for the Rousseau celebration at Lyons and some theatrical music His most notable work the music for Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 1762 short play Pygmalion, first performed in Lyon in 1770 was a success and soon became known throughout Europe
1742 Maria Christina Duchess of Teschen the fourth daughter and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was Governor of the Austrian Netherlands from 1781 until 1793. She was an older sister of Marie Antoinette
1750 Lorenzo Mascheroni an Italian mathematician.
1753 Lazare Carnot a French politician, engineer, and mathematician.
1756 Johan Bergenstråhle a Swedish military officer who participated in Russo-Swedish War , and the Finnish War. In June 1808 he was sent as a colonel of the Swedish Army, with 1,000 men and four cannon to Vasa in order to retake the city from the Russians. The expedition failed; Bergenstråhle was wounded and captured on June 25
1759 Elizabeth Cavendish Duchess of Devonshire best known as an early woman novelist and as the close friend of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire. Elizabeth supplanted the Duchess, gaining the Duke's affections and later marrying him
1765 Vieira Portuense a Portuguese painter, one of the introducers of Neoclassicism in Portuguese painting. He was, in the neoclassical style, one of the two great Portuguese painters of his generation, with Domingos Sequeira
1767 John VI of Portugal King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1822, and, although de facto the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist, he remained so de jure from 1822 to 1825; after the recognition of Brazilian independence under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, he continued as King of Portugal and the Algarves until his death in 1826. Under the said Treaty he also became Titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son, Emperor Pedro I, was both de facto and de jure the monarch of the newly independent country
1774 Pierre-Narcisse Guérin a French painter.
1778 Honoré V Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois. He was born Honoré Gabriel Grimaldi, the first son of Honoré IV of Monaco and Louise d'Aumont. He died unmarried; his younger brother, Prince Florestan, succeeded him
1782 Johan Gustaf Sandberg a Swedish painter from Stockholm. He was foremost a history painter and used settings from Norse mythology and Swedish history. His most widely known work in this area are his frescoes in Uppsala Cathedral that depict the Swedish king Gustav Vasa. In addition to his history paintings, Sandberg painted a number of portraits
1785 Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann a German historian and politician.
1785 Hans Karl von Diebitsch a German-born soldier serving as Russian Field Marshal.
1792 Pope Pius IX born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned from 16 June 1846 to his death in 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church — over 31 years. During his pontificate, he convened the First Vatican Council , which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short due to the loss of the Papal States
1794 Louis Léopold Robert a Swiss painter.
1795 Gérard Paul Deshayes a French geologist and conchologist.
1795 Pavel Jozef Šafárik a Slovak philologist, poet, one of the first scientific Slavists; literary historian, historian and ethnographer.
1801 Edward Newman (entomologist) an English entomologist, botanist and writer.
1803 Juan Almonte a 19th-century Mexican official, soldier and diplomat. He was a veteran of the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. Almonte was also a leader of Mexico's Conservatives in the 1860s and served as regent after the Second Mexican Empire was established by Napoleon III of France
1804 Daniele Manin an Italian patriot and statesman from Venice. He is considered by many Italian historians a hero of the Italian unification
1804 Aleksey Khomyakov a Russian theologian, philosopher and poet. He co-founded the Slavophile movement along with Ivan Kireyevsky, and became one of its most distinguished theoreticians. His son Nikolay Khomyakov was a speaker of the State Duma
1810 F. C. D. Wyneken a missionary, pastor, and the second president of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. He was also the first president of Concordia Theological Seminary
1818 Eduard von Engerth an Austrian historical portrait painter.
1822 Francis Duke of Cádiz King consort of Spain as spouse of Isabella II of Spain. He is commonly styled the Duke of Cádiz, the title he held before his marriage
1824 Abramo Bartolommeo Massalongo an Italian paleobotanist and lichenologist. He was born in Tregnago in the Province of Verona and took a great interest in botany as a young man. Massalongo joined the faculty of medicine at the University of Padua in 1844. Along with Gustav Wilhelm Körber, he founded the "Italian-Silesian" school of lichenology. He was the husband of Maria Colognato and the father of hepaticalogist Caro Benigno Massalongo
1825 John Lawrence LeConte the most important American entomologist of the 19th century, responsible for naming and describing approximately half of the insect taxa known in the United States during his lifetime, including some 5,000 species of beetles. He was recognized as the foremost authority on North American beetles during his lifetime, and has been described as "the father of American beetle study."
1830 Zebulon Baird Vance a Confederate military officer in the American Civil War, the 37th and 43rd Governor of North Carolina, and U.S. Senator. A prodigious writer, Vance became one of the most influential Southern leaders of the Civil War and postbellum periods
1830 Frederic Moore a British entomologist. It has been said that Moore was born at 33 Bruton Street but may be incorrect given that this was the address of the menagerie and office of the Zoological Society of London from 1826 to 1836
1832 Juris Alunāns a Latvian writer and philologist in the Russian Empire. He was one of the first contributors of Latvian language. He was one of the members of the Young Latvia movement
1840 Anton Rehmann an Austrian geographer, geomorphologist, botanist and explorer. He published mostly in German journals in Austria and is regarded as an Austrian botanist, as Galicia was at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
1840 Alphonse Daudet a French novelist. He was the father of writers Léon Daudet and Lucien Daudet
1842 Arthur Sullivan an English composer. He is best known for his series of 14 operatic collaborations with the dramatist S. Gilbert, including such enduring works as H.M.S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado. Sullivan composed 23 operas, 13 major orchestral works, eight choral works and oratorios, two ballets, incidental music to several plays, and numerous hymns and other church pieces, songs, and piano and chamber pieces. The best known of his hymns and songs include "Onward Christian Soldiers" and "The Lost Chord"