Died on May 13

189 Emperor Ling of Han an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty. He was a great-great-grandson of Emperor Zhang. The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out during Emperor Ling's reign
558 John the Silent a Christian saint known for living alone for seventy-six years. He was given the surname because he loved recollection and silence. John's feast day is May 13 in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, and December 3 in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches
772 Dōkyō a Japanese monk of the Hossō sect of Buddhism; and he was a political figure in the Nara period.
1176 Matthias I Duke of Lorraine the duke of Lorraine from 1138 to his death as the eldest son and successor of Simon I and Adelaide. Like his forefathers going back to Thierry II and even to Adalbert, he was a stern supporter of the king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. He married Judith , daughter of Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, and therefore niece of the Hohenstaufen king Conrad III and sister of Frederick Barbarossa, future emperor
1230 Casimir I of Opole a Duke of Opole-Racibórz from 1211 until his death.
1312 Theobald II Duke of Lorraine the duke of Lorraine from 1303 to his death. He was the son and successor of Frederick III and Margaret, daughter of King Theobald I of Navarre
1375 Stephen II Duke of Bavaria after 1347 Duke of Bavaria. He was the second son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian by his first wife Beatrix of Świdnica and a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty
1409 Jan of Tarnów a Polish nobleman.
1568 Sophie of Pomerania known for her independent rule over her fiefs Lolland and Falster, the castles in Kiel and Plön, and several villages in Holsten as queen.
1573 Takeda Shingen a pre-eminent daimyo in feudal Japan with exceptional military prestige in the late stage of the Sengoku period.
1604 Christine of Hesse Duchess consort of Holstein-Gottorp as the spouse of Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp. She exerted some political influence as a widow after 1586
1610 Maria Vladimirovna of Staritsa a Russian princess. She was the daughter of Prince Vladimir of Staritsa and his wife, Princess Eudoxia Romanovna Odoevskaya, and, through her father, descended from Zoe Palaiologina
1619 Johan van Oldenbarnevelt a Dutch statesman who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain.
1646 Maria Anna of Spain Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.
1653 Teodósio Prince of Brazil the heir-apparent son of John IV of Portugal and his wife Luisa de Guzmán. In 1645 he was given the title of Prince of Brazil, a new crown-princely position thus created. Also, his father granted him the duchy as 10th Duke of Braganza, presumably after his uncle Duarte died in 1649
1673 Johannes Bach a German composer and musician of the Baroque. He was the father of the so-called "Erfurt line" of Bach family musicians
1704 Louis Bourdaloue a French Jesuit and preacher.
1708 Giovanni Battista Draghi (composer) an Anglo-Italian composer and keyboard player. He may have been the brother of the composer Antonio Draghi
1710 Henry Duke of Saxe-Römhild a duke of Saxe-Römhild.
1768 Princess Louisa of Great Britain a grandchild of George II and sister of George III.
1781 William Amherst (British Army officer) a British military commander. In 1762 during the Seven Years' War he led British forces that defeated a French expedition to Newfoundland at the Battle of Signal Hill
1782 Daniel Solander a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. Solander was the first university educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil
1801 Princess Maria Felicita of Savoy a princess of the house of Savoy, the third daughter of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and his second wife Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg. A religious woman, she died unmarried
1807 Eliphalet Dyer a lawyer, jurist, and statesman from Windham, Connecticut. He was a delegate for Connecticut to many sessions of the Continental Congress
1809 Beilby Porteus a Church of England reformer and a leading abolitionist in England. He was the first Anglican in a position of authority to seriously challenge the Church's position on slavery
1812 Johannes Matthias Sperger an Austrian contrabassist and composer.
1818 Louis Joseph Prince of Condé Prince of Condé from 1740 to his death. A member of the House of Bourbon, he held the prestigious rank of Prince du Sang
1819 Prince David of Georgia a Georgian royal prince , writer and scholar, was a regent of the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from December 28, 1800 to January 18, 1801.
1825 Charles Whitworth 1st Earl Whitworth a British diplomat and politician.
1826 Christian Kramp a French mathematician, who worked primarily with factorials.
1831 Christian Gottfried Körner a German jurist. His home was a literary and musical salon, and he was a friend of Friedrich Schiller
1832 Georges Cuvier a French naturalist and zoologist. Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils
1832 Edward Dodwell an Irish painter, traveller and a writer on archaeology.
1835 John Nash (architect) a British architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London under the patronage of the Prince Regent, and during his reign as George Nash was also a pioneer in the use of the Picturesque in architecture. His best-known buildings are the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, and Buckingham Palace
1836 Charles Wilkins an English typographer and Orientalist, notable as the first translator of Bhagavad Gita into English, and as the creator, alongside Panchanan Karmakar, of the first Bengali typeface.
1839 Joseph Fesch a French cardinal and diplomat, Prince of France and a member of the Imperial House of the First French Empire, Peer of France, Roman Prince, and the uncle of Napoleon Bonaparte. He was also one of the most famous art collectors of his period, remembered for having established the Musée Fesch in Ajaccio, which remains one of the most important Napoleonic collections of art
1839 Hugues-Bernard Maret duc de Bassano a French statesman and journalist.
1840 Leonard Gyllenhaal a Swedish military officer and entomologist.
1847 Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin a pioneering French surgeon and gynecologist. He pioneered a number of operations including removal of the rectum, lithotomy in women, and amputation of the cervix uteri
1849 Edward Paget a British Army officer.
1851 Princess Augusta of Bavaria the second child and eldest daughter of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt.
1854 Étienne-Émile Desvaux a French botanist.
1856 Jean Zuléma Amussat a French surgeon.
1859 Denison Olmsted born at East Hartford, Connecticut. Professor Olmsted is credited with giving birth to meteor science after the 1833 Leonid meteor shower over North America spurred him to study this phenomenon
1860 Christian Gmelin a German chemist.
1864 Rudolf Wagner a German anatomist and physiologist and the co-discoverer of the germinal vesicle. He made important investigations on ganglia, nerve-endings, and the sympathetic nerves
1864 Junius Daniel a planter and career military officer, serving in the United States Army, then in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, as a brigadier general. His troops were instrumental in the Confederates' success at the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg. He was killed in action at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
1866 Nikolai Brashman a Russian mathematician of Austrian origin. He was a student of Joseph Johann Littrow, and the advisor of Pafnuty Chebyshev and August Davidov
1868 Afanasy Grigoriev a Russian Neoclassical architect, who worked in Moscow and its suburbs. Grigoriev is remembered for his refined Empire style mansions, completion of Great Ascension Church and assistance to Domenico Giliardi in rebuilding Moscow after the Great Fire of 1812
1872 Moritz Hartmann a German poet and author.