Born on May 14

1314 Sergius of Radonezh a spiritual leader and monastic reformer of medieval Russia. Together with Venerable Seraphim of Sarov, he is one of the Russian Orthodox Church's most highly venerated saints
1316 Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor the second King of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first King of Bohemia also to become Holy Roman Emperor.
1481 Ruprecht of the Palatinate (Bishop of Freising) the third son of Philip, Elector Palatine of the House of Wittelsbach and he was Bishop of Freising from 1495 to 1498.
1553 Margaret of Valois Queen of France and of Navarre during the late sixteenth century. A royal princess of France by birth, she was the last of the House of Valois
1574 Francesco Rasi an Italian composer, singer , chitarrone player, and poet.
1630 Katakura Kagenaga (2nd) a Japanese samurai of the early Edo period, who served as a senior retainer of the Date clan of Sendai han. He bore the same name as his great-grandfather. The lord of Shiroishi Castle, Kagenaga was the third bearer of the common name Kojūrō. During the Date incident , he was a caretaker for the young daimyō, Kamechiyo. Upon receiving news of the actions of Harada Munesuke, Kagenaga immediately brought the domain to emergency footing, restraining any disorder from breaking out and saving the Sendai domain from the danger of being attaindered. However, as he was sickly, he resigned his post immediately following the incident's resolution
1648 René de Froulay de Tessé a French Marshal and diplomat.
1652 Johann Philipp Förtsch a German baroque composer, statesman and doctor.
1657 Sambhaji the eldest son of Chhatrapati Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, and his first wife Saibai. He was successor of the realm after his father's death. Sambhaji's rule was largely shaped by the ongoing wars between the Maratha kingdom and the Mughal Empire, as well as other neighbouring powers such as the Siddis, Mysore and the Portuguese in Goa. Sambhaji was captured, tortured, and executed by the Mughals, and succeeded by his brother Rajaram
1666 Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730. He also held the titles of marquis of Saluzzo, duke of Montferrat, prince of Piedmont, count of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza. Louis XIV organised his marriage in order to maintain French influence in the Duchy but Victor Amadeus soon broke away from the influence of France. At his father's death in 1675, his mother took over a regency in the name of her nine-year-old son and would remain in de facto power till 1684 when Victor Amadeus banished her further involvement in the state. Having fought in the War of the Spanish Succession, he became king of Sicily in 1713 but he was forced to exchange this title and instead became king of Sardinia to which his direct descendants claim as part of the Kingdom of Italy. Victor Amadeus left a considerable cultural influence in Turin remodeling the Royal Palace of Turin, Palace of Venaria, Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi as well as building the Basilica of Superga where he rests
1679 Peder Horrebow a Danish astronomer. Born in Løgstør, Jutland to a poor family of fishermen, Horrebow entered the University of Copenhagen in 1703. He worked his way through grammar school and university by virtue of his technical knowledge: he repaired mechanical and musical instruments and cut seals. He received his MA from the university in 1716, and his MD in 1725. From 1703 to 1707, he served as an assistant to Ole Rømer and lived in Rømer's home. He worked as a household tutor from 1707 to 1711 to a Danish baron, and entered the governmental bureaucracy as an excise writer in 1711
1699 Hans Joachim von Zieten a cavalry general in the Prussian Army. He served in numerous wars and battles during the reign of Frederick the Great
1701 William Emerson (mathematician) born at Hurworth, near Darlington, where his father, Dudley Emerson, also a mathematician, taught a school. William himself had a small estate in Weardale called Castle Gate situated not far from Eastgate where he would repair to work throughout the Summer on projects as disparate as stonemasonry and watchmaking. Unsuccessful as a teacher, he devoted himself entirely to studious retirement. Possessed of remarkable energy and forthrightness of speech, Emerson published many works which are singularly free from errata
1710 Adolf Frederick King of Sweden King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach
1725 Ludovico Manin the last Doge of Venice. He governed Venice from 9 March 1789 until 1797, when he was forced to abdicate by Napoleon Bonaparte
1727 Thomas Gainsborough an English portrait and landscape painter.
1737 George Macartney 1st Earl Macartney an Irish-born British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. He is often remembered for his observation following Britain's success in the Seven Years War and subsequent territorial expansion at the Treaty of Paris that Britain now controlled "a vast Empire, on which the sun never sets"
1741 Christian Schkuhr a German gardener, artist and botanist.
1743 Richard Earlom an English mezzotint engraver.
1748 Franz von Albini a German judge and statesman, noted for organising the defence of German states against the French Revolution.
1752 Timothy Dwight IV an American academic and educator, a Congregationalist minister, theologian, and author. He was the eighth president of Yale College
1752 Albrecht Thaer a renowned German agronomist and an avid supporter of the humus theory for plant nutrition.
1754 António de Araújo e Azevedo 1st Count of Barca a Portuguese statesman, author and amateur botanist.
1759 Aloys I Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein from 1781 until his death. He was the third son of Franz Josef I
1761 Samuel Dexter an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinet.
1771 Robert Owen a Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.
1780 Jules de Polignac a French statesman. He was an ultra-royalist politician after the Revolution and prime minister under Charles X just before the 1830 July Revolution which overthrew the Bourbon dynasty
1781 Friedrich Ludwig Georg von Raumer a German historian. He was the first scientific historian to popularise history in German. He travelled extensively and served in German legislative bodies
1801 Edme-Jean Leclaire a French economist and businessman. He developed an early system of employee profit-sharing
1805 Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann a Danish composer.
1811 Antoni Patek a Polish pioneer in watchmaking and a creator of Patek Philippe & Co., one of the most famous watchmaker companies.
1813 Charles Beyer a German-British locomotive engineer, co-founder of the firm Beyer-Peacock.
1814 Siméon-François Berneux a French Catholic missionary, and a member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society who was canonized as a saint.
1815 Emile Plantamour a Swiss astronomer.
1817 Alexander Kaufmann a German poet and folklorist from Bonn.
1825 Francisco Antonino Vidal born in San Carlos, Uruguay, in Maldonado Department, and was a senator and two-time president of Uruguay.
1830 George P. Doles a Georgia businessman and Confederate general during the American Civil War. His men played a key role on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg in driving back the Union XI Corps
1832 Charles Peace a notorious English burglar and murderer from Sheffield, whose somewhat remarkable life later spawned dozens of romanticised novels and films. Peace is mentioned by name in the Sherlock Holmes short story, The Adventure of the Illustrious Client and in Mark Twain's Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven
1832 Rudolf Lipschitz a German mathematician and professor at the University of Bonn from 1864. Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet was his teacher. He supervised the early work of Felix Klein. While Lipschitz gave his name to the Lipschitz continuity condition, he worked in a broad range of areas. These included number theory, algebras with involution, mathematical analysis, differential geometry and classical mechanics
1844 Alexander Kaulbars a general in the Imperial Russian Army during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and a noted explorer of Central Asia.
1848 Albert Robida a French illustrator, etcher, lithographer, caricaturist, and novelist. He edited and published La Caricature magazine for 12 years. Through the 1880s he wrote an acclaimed trilogy of futuristic novels. In the 1900s he created 520 illustrations for Pierre Giffard's weekly serial La Guerre Infernale
1852 Henri Julien a French Canadian artist and cartoonist noted for his work for the Canadian Illustrated News.
1853 Hall Caine a Manx author. He is best known as a novelist and playwright of the late Victorian and the Edwardian eras. In his time, he was exceedingly popular, and, at the peak of his success, his novels outsold those of his contemporaries. Many of his novels were also made into films. His novels were primarily romances, involving love triangles, but also addressed some of the more serious political and social issues of the day
1854 Duchess Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin born Marie Alexandrine Elisabeth Eleonore of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, daughter of Grand Duke Frederick Francis II of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Princess Augusta of Reuss-Köstritz. A prominent hostess in St Petersburg following her marriage to the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, she was known as the grandest of the grand duchesses and had an open rivalry with the Empress Maria Feodorovna
1857 Bruno Granholm a Finnish architect. He served as the chief architect of Rautatiehallitus between 1892 and 1926. Many of the station buildings he designed are still in use today, having aged surprisingly well
1858 Vasili Fersen an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy. Born in the Governorate of Estonia as Wilhelm Fersen, he was of Scottish ancestry, his forebears name being from clan McPherson
1863 John Charles Fields a Canadian mathematician and the founder of the Fields Medal for outstanding achievement in mathematics. First awarded in 1936, the medal has been awarded since 1950 every four years at the International Congress of Mathematicians to two to four recipients under the age of 40
1863 Vilém Mrštík a Czech writer known for his novel Santa Lucia. With his brother, Alois he also wrote the drama Maryša. This play, set in rural Moravia, explored gender roles and tradition in a small village. In contrast to the more positive renderings of rural life by the writers of the National Revival, the brothers attempted a more impartial view of life in the countryside
1864 Eleanor Everest Freer an American composer and philanthropist.
1865 Edward Augustus Bowles VMH , known professionally as A. Bowles, was a British horticulturalist, plantsman and garden writer. He developed an important garden at Myddelton House, his lifelong home at Bulls Cross in Enfield, Middlesex and his name has been preserved in many varieties of plant