Died on May 14

649 Pope Theodore I Pope from 24 November 642 to his death in 649. Although considered a Greek, he was born in Jerusalem. He was made a cardinal deacon and a full cardinal by Pope John IV
964 Pope John XII Pope and ruler of the Papal States from 16 December 955 to his death in 964. He was related to the Counts of Tusculum and a member of the powerful Roman family of Theophylact which had dominated papal politics for over half a century. His pontificate became infamous for the alleged depravity and worldliness with which he conducted it
1080 William Walcher the bishop of Durham from 1071, a Lotharingian, the first non-Englishman to hold that see and an appointee of William the Conqueror following the Harrying of the North. He was murdered in 1080, which led William to send an army into Northumbria to harry the region again
1219 William Marshal 1st Earl of Pembroke an English soldier and statesman. Stephen Langton eulogized him as the "best knight that ever lived." He served four kings – Henry II, Richard the Lionheart, John Lackland, and Henry III – and rose from obscurity to become a regent of England for the last of the four, and so one of the most powerful men in Europe. Before him, the hereditary title of "Marshal" designated head of household security for the king of England; by the time he died, people throughout Europe referred to him simply as "the Marshal". He received the title of "1st Earl of Pembroke" through marriage during the second creation of the Pembroke Earldom
1313 Bolko I of Opole a Duke of Opole from 1282 , Niemodlin and Strzelce Opolskie until his death.
1470 Charles VIII of Sweden king of Sweden and king of Norway.
1565 Nicolaus von Amsdorf a German theologian and Protestant reformer.
1576 Tahmasp I an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I
1608 Charles III Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine from 1545 until his death.
1610 Henry IV of France King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon
1643 Louis XIII of France a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged to the French crown.
1649 Friedrich Spanheim a Calvinistic theology professor at the University of Leiden.
1667 Georges de Scudéry a French novelist, dramatist and poet.
1669 Denis de Sallo a French writer and lawyer from Paris, known as the founder of the first French literary and scientific journal - the Journal des sçavans.
1688 Antoine Furetière born in Paris.
1736 Louis Auguste Duke of Maine a legitimised son of the French king Louis XIV and his official mistress, Madame de Montespan. The king's favourite son, he was the founder of the semi-royal House of Bourbon-Maine named after his title and his surname
1754 Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée a French dramatist who blurred the lines between comedy and tragedy with his comédie larmoyante.
1761 Thomas Simpson a British mathematician, inventor and eponym of Simpson's rule to approximate definite integrals. The attribution, as often in mathematics, can be debated: this rule had been found 100 years earlier by Johannes Kepler, and in German is the so-called Keplersche Fassregel
1781 Abram Petrovich Gannibal an African kidnapped and brought to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great. He became a major-general, military engineer, governor of Reval and nobleman of the Russian Empire. He is perhaps best known today as the great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin, who wrote an unfinished novel about him, Peter the Great's Negro
1791 Francesca Lebrun a noted 18th-century German singer and composer.
1812 Duncan Ban MacIntyre one of the most renowned of Scottish Gaelic poets and formed an integral part of one of the golden ages of Gaelic poetry in Scotland during the 18th century. He is best known for his poem about Beinn Dorain; "Moladh Beinn Dòbhrain" :
1818 Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz by birth and a member of the House of Saxe-Hildburghausen and Duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen through her marriage to Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
1827 Louis Ramond de Carbonnières a French politician, geologist and botanist. He is regarded as one of the first explorers of the high mountains of the Pyrenees who can be described as a pyrénéiste
1828 Étienne-Jean Georget an early French psychiatrist. He is known for writing on monomania. He is also the pioneer of forensic psychiatry, and was the first psychiatrist to discuss the defence of insanity to criminal charges
1831 Wacław Seweryn Rzewuski a Polish explorer, poet, orientalist and horse expert.
1840 Karl vom Stein zum Altenstein a Prussian politician and the first Prussian culture minister. His most lasting impact was the reform of the Prussian educational system
1847 Fanny Mendelssohn a German pianist and composer, the sister of the composer Felix Mendelssohn and granddaughter of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. She was the grandmother of the philosopher Paul Hensel and the mathematician Kurt Hensel
1851 Manuel Gómez Pedraza a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.
1855 Stevan Knićanin a Serbian voivode of the Serbian volunteer squads in Serbian Vojvodina during the 1848 revolution.
1856 Théodore Guérin the foundress of the Sisters of Providence of Saint Mary-of-the-Woods, Indiana, a congregation of Catholic nuns. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II in October 1998 and finally canonized a saint of the Roman Catholic church on October 15, 2006, by Pope Benedict XVI. Her feast day is October 3
1860 Ludwig Bechstein a German writer and collector of folk fairy tales.
1862 Charles Jared Ingersoll an American lawyer and Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania
1863 Émile Prudent a French pianist and composer. His works number about seventy, and include a piano trio, a concerto-symphony, many character pieces, sets of variations, transcriptions and etudes, in addition to his celebrated fantasies on operatic airs. As a teacher, he was very successful and produced several distinguished pupils
1867 Joseph Toussaint Reinaud a French orientalist.
1868 John Newton Brown an influential Baptist teacher, minister and publisher in the 19th century.
1873 Gideon Brecher an Austrian physician and writer.
1875 Gottfried Bernhardy born at Landsberg an der Warthe in the Neumark.
1878 Ōkubo Toshimichi a Japanese statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration. He is regarded as one of the main founders of modern Japan
1879 Henry Sewell a prominent 19th-century New Zealand politician. He was a notable campaigner for New Zealand self-government, and is generally regarded as having been the country's first Premier, having led the Sewell Ministry in 1856
1879 Epameinondas Deligiorgis a Greek lawyer, newspaper reporter and politician. His father hailed from Mesolonghi. Deligiorgis studied law at the University of Athens and entered politics in 1854. He was not a proponent of the Megali Idea and thought that a better solution to the Eastern Question would be to improve the condition of the Greeks living in Ottoman-controlled Macedonia, Epirus, Thrace and Asia Minor by liberalising the Ottoman Empire. Deligeorgis was the person who, on October 10, 1862, declared the end of the reign of King Otto and the convening of a national assembly
1881 Maria Domenica Mazzarello the Italian founder of the Salesian Sisters.
1881 Mary Seacole a Jamaican-born woman of Scottish and Creole descent who set up a "British Hotel" behind the lines during the Crimean War, which she described as "a mess-table and comfortable quarters for sick and convalescent officers," and provided succour for wounded servicemen on the battlefield. She was posthumously awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit in 1991. In 2004 she was voted the greatest black Briton
1881 Duke Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg a Duke of the House of Oldenburg. He was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War His great-great grandson, Nicholas Romanov, is the current President of the Romanov Family Association
1883 Mahmud Nedim Pasha an Ottoman statesman of Georgian origin. He was the son of Mehmed Necib Pasha, a governor-general of Baghdad. After occupying various subordinate posts at the Porte, he became under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, governor-general of Damascus and İzmir , minister of commerce, and governor-general of Tripoli. He was also successively Minister of Justice and Minister of the Navy in 1869, and ultimately grand vizier twice from 1871 to 1872 and from 1875 to 1876
1883 Dmitry Glinka a Russian diplomat, privy councillor in deed, and sociologist.
1887 Lysander Spooner an American individualist anarchist, political philosopher, Deist, Unitarian abolitionist, supporter of the labor movement, legal theorist, and entrepreneur of the nineteenth century. He is also known for competing with the U.S. Post Office with his American Letter Mail Company, which was forced out of business by the United States federal government
1889 Volney Howard an American lawyer, statesman, and jurist.
1893 Ernst Kummer a German mathematician. Skilled in applied mathematics, Kummer trained German army officers in ballistics; afterwards, he taught for 10 years in a gymnasium, the German equivalent of high school, where he inspired the mathematical career of Leopold Kronecker
1897 Richard Coke an American lawyer, farmer, and statesman from Waco, Texas. He was the 15th governor of Texas from 1874 to 1876 and represented Texas in the U.S. Senate from 1877 to 1895. His uncle was Congressman Richard Coke, Jr
1899 Lars Fredrik Nilson a Swedish chemist who discovered scandium in 1879.