Born on May 16

1418 John II of Cyprus the King of Cyprus and Armenia and also titular King of Jerusalem from 1432 to 1458. He was previously a Titular Prince of Antioch. In May, 1435/1440 he married Aimee or Amadea Palaiologina of Monferrato , Queen of Cyprus, Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia, daughter of John Jacob, Marquess of Montferrat, without issue. His second wife, a distant relative of his first one, married in Nicosia, 1441 or February 3, 1442 was Helena Palaiologina , only child and daughter of Theodore II Palaeologus, Despot of Morea and his wife Cleofa Malatesta. Theodore was a son of Eastern Roman Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus and Helena Dragaš and the brother of the last two Eastern Roman Emperor, John VIII Palaeologus and Constantine XI Palaeologus. By his second marriage he had two daughters:
1569 Dirk Willems most famous for escaping from prison, turning around to rescue his pursuer—who had fallen through thin ice while chasing Willems—to then be recaptured, tortured and killed for his faith.
1605 Federico Ubaldo della Rovere Duke of Urbino Duke of Urbino and the father of Vittoria della Rovere.
1609 Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Infante of Spain, Infante of Portugal , Archduke of Austria, Archbishop of Toledo , and military commander during the Thirty Years' War.
1611 Pope Innocent XI Pope from 21 September 1676 to his death in 1689. He is known as the "Saviour of Hungary"
1626 Willem Joseph van Ghent a 17th-century Dutch admiral. His surname is also sometimes rendered Gendt or Gent
1627 Willem van Aelst a Dutch artist who specialized in still-life painting with flowers or game.
1641 Dudley North (economist) an English merchant, politician and economist, a writer on free trade.
1667 Germain Boffrand a French architect. A pupil of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Germain Boffrand was one of the main creators of the precursor to Rococo called the style Régence, and in his interiors, of the Rococo itself. In his exteriors he held to a monumental Late Baroque classicism with some innovations in spatial planning that were exceptional in France His major commissions, culminating in his interiors at the Hôtel de Soubise, were memorialised in his treatise Livre d'architecture, published in 1745, which served to disseminate the French "Louis XV" style throughout Europe
1710 William Talbot 1st Earl Talbot a British politician.
1718 Maria Gaetana Agnesi an Italian mathematician and philosopher.
1728 Johann Andreas Stein an outstanding German maker of keyboard instruments, a central figure in the history of the piano. He was primarily responsible for the design of the so-called "Viennese" fortepiano, for which the piano music of Haydn, Mozart, and the early Beethoven was written
1749 Nikolai Putyatin a philanthropist, philosopher and eccentric personality from the Rurikid dynasty.
1755 Honoré Flaugergues a French astronomer.
1763 Louis Nicolas Vauquelin a French pharmacist and chemist.
1768 Prince Ioane of Georgia a Georgian prince , writer and encyclopedist.
1771 Louis Henri Loison briefly joined the French Army in 1787 and after the French Revolution became a junior officer. Blessed with military talent and courage, he rapidly rose to general officer rank during the French Revolutionary Wars. He also got into difficulties because of his fondness for plundering. In late 1795 he helped Napoleon Bonaparte crush a revolt against the government. After a hiatus, he returned in 1799 to fight in Switzerland where he earned another promotion. In 1800 he commanded a division under Napoleon in the Marengo Campaign
1773 Nicolas Isouard a Maltese composer.
1782 John Sell Cotman an English marine and landscape painter, etcher, illustrator and author, a leading member of the Norwich school of artists.
1788 Friedrich Rückert a German poet, translator, and professor of Oriental languages.
1799 Ebenezer Emmons a pioneering American geologist whose work includes the naming of the Adirondack Mountains in New York as well as a first ascent of Mount Marcy.
1801 William H. Seward United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and also served as Governor of New York and United States Senator. A determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the American Civil War, he was a dominant figure in the Republican Party in its formative years. Although regarded as the leading contender for the party's presidential nomination in 1860, he was defeated by Abraham Lincoln
1803 Prince Lucien Murat a French politician, and the sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo between 1812 and May 1815.
1805 Alexander Burnes a Scottish traveller and explorer who took part in The Great Game. He was nicknamed Bokhara Burnes for his role in establishing contact with and exploring Bukhara, which made his name
1812 Camille Doucet a French poet and playwright.
1816 Rudolf Brestel an Austrian politician.
1817 Nikolay Kostomarov one of the most distinguished Russian historians, a Professor of History at the Kiev University and later at the Petersburg University, an author of many books, including his famous biography of the seventeenth century Hetman of Zaporozhian Cossacks Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and his fundamental 3-volume Russian History in Biographies of its main figures. Nikolay Kostomarov was so important for Ukrainian culture, that some researchers observe him as an Ukrainian historian, as well as Russian
1819 Johann Voldemar Jannsen an Estonian journalist and poet active in Livonia.
1820 John Milton Elliott an American lawyer and politician from Prestonsburg, Kentucky. He represented Kentucky in the United States House of Representatives from 1853 until 1857 and served in the First Confederate Congress during the American Civil War
1821 Pafnuty Chebyshev a Russian mathematician. His name can be alternatively transliterated as Chebychev, Chebysheff, Chebyshov; or Tchebychev, Tchebycheff ; or Tschebyschev, Tschebyschef, Tschebyscheff
1824 Levi P. Morton a Representative from New York and the 22nd Vice President of the United States. He later served as the 31st Governor of New York
1824 Edmund Kirby Smith a career United States Army officer before serving the Confederacy during the American Civil War, and educator in the postwar years. He served as a general in the Confederate States Army, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department after the fall of Vicksburg to the Union Army
1824 Milivoje Petrović Blaznavac Serbian soldier and politician. His father, Petar, was a rural merchant and shopkeeper from Blaznava, although a story circulated that he was an illegitimate son of Prince Miloš Obrenović and a lady of Miloš's household, whom Miloš married off to one of his guards retired as a village storekeeper, before the birth of Blaznavac in 1824
1827 Pierre Cuypers a Dutch architect. His name is most frequently associated with the Amsterdam Central Station and the Rijksmuseum , both in Amsterdam. More representative for his oeuvre, however, are numerous churches, of which he designed more than 100. Moreover, he restored a large number of monuments
1831 Daniel Manning an American businessman, journalist, and politician most notable for having served as the 37th United States Secretary of the Treasury.
1831 David Edward Hughes a Welsh-American scientist and musician. Hughes invented the first working radio communication system, the first semiconductor diode crystal radio receiver, the first printing telegraph, and the first microphone. He was also a harpist, and a professor of music
1837 August Klostermann a German Lutheran theologian.
1846 Ottomar Anschütz a German inventor, photographer, and chronophotographer.
1846 Henry John Elwes a British botanist, entomologist, author, lepidopterist, collector and traveller who became renowned for collecting specimens of lilies during trips to the Himalayas and Korea. He was the first person to receive the Victoria Medal of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1897. He is the author of Monograph of the Genus Lilium , and Trees of Great Britain and Ireland with Augustine Henry, as well as numerous articles. He left a collection of 30,000 butterfly specimens to the Natural History Museum, including 11,370 specimens of Palaearctic butterflies
1848 Ernest Alexandre Honoré Coquelin a French actor. Also called Coquelin Cadet, to distinguish him from his brother, he was born at Boulogne, and entered the Conservatoire in 1864
1849 Victor Bruce 9th Earl of Elgin a British politician who served as Viceroy of India from 1894 to 1899.
1850 Jan Mikulicz-Radecki a Polish-Austrian surgeon. He was born on 16 May 1850 in Czerniowce in the Austrian Empire and died on 4 June 1905 in Breslau, German Empire. He was professor in Kraków, Wrocław, and Królewiec. Inventor of new operating techniques and tools, one of the pioneers of antiseptics and aseptic techniques. In Poland he is regarded as one of the founders of the Kraków school of surgery
1850 Auguste Deter the first person diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Her maiden name is unknown. She married Karl Deter in the 1880s and together they had one daughter. Auguste had a normal life. However, during the late 1890s, she started showing symptoms of dementia, such as: loss of memory, delusions, and even temporary vegetative states. She would have trouble sleeping, would drag sheets across the house, and even scream for hours in the middle of the night
1861 H. H. Holmes one of the first documented serial killers in the modern sense of the term. In Chicago at the time of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, Holmes opened a hotel which he had designed and built for himself specifically with murder in mind, and which was the location of many of his murders. While he confessed to 27 murders, of which nine were confirmed, his actual body count could be as high as 200. He brought an unknown number of his victims to his World's Fair Hotel from the Columbian Exposition, which was held in Jackson Park some five kilometers to the east
1862 Willem de Zwart a Dutch painter, engraver, watercolorist, with many connections to the Hague School and later associated with the Amsterdam Impressionism movement.
1864 Nathan Birnbaum an Austrian writer and journalist, Jewish thinker and nationalist. His life had three main phases, representing a progression in his thinking: a Zionist phase ; a Jewish cultural autonomy phase which included the promotion of the Yiddish language; and religious phase when he turned to Orthodox Judaism and became staunchly anti-Zionist
1869 Albert Cuny a French linguist known for his attempts to establish phonological correspondences between the Indo-European and Semitic languages and for his contributions to the laryngeal theory.
1870 Antonín Slavíček a Czech Impressionist painter who worked mostly in the area surrounding Kameničky.
1870 Karel Kašpar a Czech Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Prague from 1931 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1935
1872 Alphonse Laverrière a Swiss architect.