Died on May 16

1164 Héloïse d'Argenteuil a French nun, writer, scholar, and abbess, best known for her love affair and correspondence with Peter Abélard.
1182 John Komnenos Vatatzes a major military and political figure in the Byzantine Empire during the reigns of Manuel I Komnenos and Alexios II Komnenos. He was born c.1132, and died of natural causes during a rebellion he raised against Andronikos I Komnenos in 1182
1211 Mieszko IV Tanglefoot a Duke of Silesia from 1163 to 1173 , Duke of Racibórz from 1173, Duke of Opole from 1202 and from 9 June 1210 until his death, Duke of Kraków and High Duke of Poland.
1265 Simon Stock an early prior general of the Carmelite religious order. Little is known about his life with any historical certainty. The Blessed Virgin Mary is traditionally said to have appeared to him and given him the Carmelite habit, the Brown Scapular, with a promise that those who die wearing it will be saved. Thus, popular devotion to Saint Simon Stock is usually associated with devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel
1373 John I Count of Armagnac Count of Armagnac from 1319 to 1373. In addition to Armagnac he controlled territory in Quercy, Rouergue and Gévaudan. He was the count who initiated the 14th century expansion of the county
1375 Liu Ji (14th century) a great military strategist, officer, statesman and poet of the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty period of Chinese history. He was born in Qingtian County. He was the main strategist and advisor of the Yuan Dynasty era rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang , who later became the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty.. Liu Ji is also known for his prophecies, as he has been described as the " Divine Chinese Nostradamus". With his contemporary general and scholar Jiao Yu, he was one of the co-editors of the military treatise known as the Huolongjing. His most famous military treatise is known as the Lessons of War
1412 Gian Maria Visconti the second Visconti Duke of Milan, the son of Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Caterina Visconti.
1417 Eberhard III Count of Württemberg der Milde , ruled from 1392-1417 as the Count of Württemberg, then a part of the Holy Roman Empire.
1507 Ginevra Sforza the wife and counselor of Giovanni II Bentivoglio, lord of Bologna.
1529 Francesco Morone an Italian painter, active in his native city of Verona in a Renaissance style. He was the son of the Veronese painter Domenico Morone. The art biographer Vasari praised his frescoes for the cupola of the sacristy in Santa Maria in Organo, Verona. He also painted the organ shutters in that church. Paolo Cavazzola was said to have been a pupil, but may have more aptly worked with one of his family members
1561 Jan Tarnowski a Polish szlachcic , knight, military commander, military theoretician, and statesman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. He was Grand Crown Hetman from 1527, and was the founder of the city of Tarnopol, where he built the Ternopil Castle and the Ternopil Pond
1574 Catherine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Margravine of Brandenburg-Küstrin a Princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by birth and by marriage Margravine of Brandenburg-Küstrin.
1613 Jerzy Mniszech a nobleman in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Member of the Mniszchowie family. Krajczy koronny in 1574, castellan of Radom in 1583, voivode of Sandomierz Voivodship in 1590, żupnik ruski, starost of Lwów in 1593, starost of Sambor, Sokal, Sanok, Rohatyn
1620 William Adams (sailor) an English navigator who travelled to Japan becoming the first ever Western Samurai. Adams was also to be the first Englishman ever to reach that country and was the inspiration for the character of John Blackthorne in James Clavell's best-selling novel Shōgun
1657 Andrew Bobola a Polish missionary and martyr of the Society of Jesus, known as the Apostle of Lithuania and the "hunter of souls".
1667 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton a 17th-century English statesman, a staunch supporter of Charles II who would rise to the position of Lord High Treasurer after the English Restoration. His term as treasurer began concurrently with the assumption of power by the Clarendon Ministry, but his death would precede Lord Clarendon's impeachment from the House of Commons, after which the Cabal Ministry took over government
1669 Reyer Anslo a Dutch poet.
1669 Pietro da Cortona primarily known by the name of his native town of Cortona in Tuscany. He was the leading Italian Baroque painter of his time and, along with his contemporaries and rivals Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini, was one of the key figures in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture. He was also an important designer of interior decorations
1691 Jacob Leisler a German born American colonist. He helped create the Huguenot settlement of New Rochelle in 1688 and later served as the acting Lieutenant Governor of New York. Beginning in 1689, he led an insurrection dubbed Leisler's Rebellion in colonial New York, seizing control of the colony until he was captured and executed in New York City for treason for William and Mary
1696 Mariana of Austria Queen consort of Spain as the second wife of King Philip IV, who was also her maternal uncle. At the death of her husband in 1665, Queen Mariana became regent for her son Charles II, the last Spanish Habsburg, and she remained an influential figure during his reign
1703 Charles Perrault a French author and member of the Académie française. He laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from pre-existing folk tales. The best known of his tales include Le Petit Chaperon rouge , Cendrillon , Le Chat Botté , La Belle au bois dormant and La Barbe bleue. Many of Perrault's stories, which were rewritten by the Brothers Grimm, continue to be printed and have been adapted to opera, ballet , theatre, and film. Perrault was an influential figure in the 17th-century French literary scene, and was the leader of the Modern faction during the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns
1746 Johann Adolf II Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels the last duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt and a member of the House of Wettin. He was also a commander in the Saxon army
1754 Giovanni Carlo Maria Clari an Italian musical composer and maestro di cappella at Pistoia. He was born at Pisa. He gained his initial grounding in musical education from his father, a violinist originally from Rome who was employed in the service of the church of the Cavalieri di Stefano in Pisa
1778 Robert Darcy 4th Earl of Holderness a British diplomat and politician. From 1744 to 1746 he was ambassador at Venice and from 1749 to 1751 he represented his country at The Hague. In 1751 he became Secretary of State for the Southern Department, transferring in 1754 to the Northern Department, and he remained in office until March 1761, when he was dismissed by King George III in favor of Lord Bute, although he had largely been a cipher in that position to the stronger personalities of his colleagues, successively the Duke of Newcastle, Thomas Robinson, Henry Fox, and William Pitt the Elder. From 1771 to 1776 he acted as governor to two of the King's sons, a solemn phantom as Horace Walpole calls him. He left no sons, and all his titles became extinct except the Baronies of Darcy and Conyers, which were Baronies by Writ, and the Portuguese countship of Mértola. In those peerages he was succeeded by his daughter, Amelia Osborne, Marchioness of Carmarthen
1790 Philip Yorke 2nd Earl of Hardwicke an English politician.
1818 Matthew Lewis (writer) an English novelist and dramatist, often referred to as "Monk" Lewis, because of the success of his 1796 Gothic novel, The Monk.
1826 Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Baden) was, as Elizabeth Alexeievna, , Empress of Russia during her marriage with Emperor Alexander I.
1828 Sir William Congreve 2nd Baronet an English inventor and rocket artillery pioneer distinguished for his development and deployment of Congreve rockets, and a Tory Member of Parliament.
1830 Joseph Fourier a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform and Fourier's Law are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect
1832 Casimir Pierre Périer a French statesman, President of the Council during the July Monarchy, when he headed the conservative Parti de la résistance.
1835 Felicia Hemans an English poet.
1839 Carl Adolf Otth a Swiss physician and naturalist. He was the brother of mycologist Gustav Heinrich Otth
1843 Józef Kalasanty Szaniawski a Polish philosopher and politician.
1857 Vasily Tropinin a Russian Romantic painter. Much of his life was spent as a serf; he didn't attain his freedom until he was more than forty years old. Three of his more important works are a portrait of Alexander Pushkin and paintings called The Lace Maker and The Gold-Embroideress
1861 John Stevens Henslow an English clergyman, botanist and geologist. He is best remembered as friend and mentor to his pupil Charles Darwin
1862 Edward Gibbon Wakefield a British politician, the driving force behind much of the early colonisation of South Australia, and later New Zealand.
1864 Platt Rogers Spencer the originator of Spencerian penmanship, a popular system of cursive handwriting.
1866 Jean Baptiste Charbonneau an American explorer, guide, fur trapper trader, military scout during the Mexican-American War, alcalde of Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, and a gold prospector and hotel operator in Northern California. He spoke French and English, and learned German and Spanish during his six years in Europe from 1823 to 1829. He also spoke Shoshone and other western American Indian languages, which he picked up during his years of trapping and guiding
1869 Henry J. Friel mayor of Bytown in 1854 and then of Ottawa in 1863 and 1868-1869.
1877 David Urquhart a Scottish diplomat and writer. He was a member of parliament 1847–52
1882 Konstantin von Kaufman the first Governor-General of Russian Turkestan.
1882 Reuben Chapman an American lawyer and politician. Born in 1799 in Bowling Green, Virginia, he represented Alabama in the U.S. House from 1835 to 1847 and served as the 13th Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1847 to 1849. He died in Huntsville, Alabama in 1882
1883 Ferdinand de Braekeleer the Elder a Flemish painter. He is known for his historical paintings and is called 'the Elder' to distinguish him from his son with the same name , who was also a painter
1890 Louis Jérôme Reiche a French merchant, manufacturer and entomologist.
1890 Duchess Helene in Bavaria a Bavarian princess and, through marriage, temporarily the head of the Thurn and Taxis family.
1890 Mihkel Veske an Estonian poet and linguist.
1891 Ion C. Brătianu one of the major political figures of 19th century Romania. He was the younger brother of Dimitrie, as well as the father of Ionel, Dinu, and Vintilă Brătianu. He also was the grandfather of poet Ion Pillat
1895 William Douglas-Hamilton 12th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish nobleman.
1898 Jean Antoine Zinnen a Luxembourgian composer, best known for the Luxembourgish national anthem, Ons Hémécht.
1899 Frederick McCoy an Irish palaeontologist, zoologist, and museum administrator, active in Australia.