Died on May 17

290 Emperor Wu of Jin the grandson of Sima Yi and son of Sima Zhao. He became the first emperor of the Jin dynasty after forcing Cao Huan, last ruler of the state of Cao Wei, to abdicate to him. He reigned from 265 to 290, and after conquering the state of Eastern Wu in 280, was the emperor of a unified China. Emperor Wu was known for his extravagance and sensuality, especially after the unification of China; legends boasted of his incredible potency among ten thousand concubines
946 Al-Qa'im Bi-Amrillah the second Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya and ruled from 934 to 946. He is the 12th Imam according to Isma'ili Fatemi faith
1336 Emperor Go-Fushimi the 93rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1298 to 1301
1365 Louis II Elector of Brandenburg the eldest son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian by his second wife, Margaret II, Countess of Hainault, and a member of the House of Wittelsbach. Louis was Duke of Bavaria as Louis VI and Margrave of Brandenburg as Louis As of 1356, he also served as the first Prince-elector of Brandenburg
1395 Mary Queen of Hungary the last member of the Capetian House of Anjou on the Hungarian throne, succeeded her father, Louis I, on 10 September 1382 with her mother, Elizabeth of Bosnia, as regent. Betrothed to Sigismund of Luxembourg in her father's lifetime, the queen married him in April 1385. She was deposed in December in favour of her agnate, King Charles II of Hungary, but his brief reign ended with his murder at Elizabeth's instigation in February 1386. In July, however, the newly restored queen and her mother were captured and imprisoned, and the latter was murdered in January next year. Released by her husband in June 1387, Mary reigned with him until her death
1395 Constantine Dragaš a Serbian magnate that ruled a large province in eastern Macedonia under Ottoman suzerainty, during the fall of the Serbian Empire. He succeeded his older brother Jovan Dragaš, who had been an Ottoman vassal since the Battle of Maritsa which had devastated part of the Serbian nobility. The brothers had their own government and minted coins according to the Nemanjić style. His daughter Jelena married Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos in 1392. He fell at the Battle of Rovine , serving the Ottomans against Wallachia, fighting alongside Serbian magnates Stefan Lazarević and Marko Mrnjavčević
1395 Prince Marko the de jure Serbian king from 1371 to 1395, while he was the de facto ruler of territory in western Macedonia centered on the town of Prilep. He is known as Prince Marko and King Marko in South Slavic oral tradition, in which he has become a major character during the Ottoman occupation of the Balkans. Marko's father, King Vukašin, was co-ruler with Serbian Tsar Stefan Uroš V, whose reign was characterised by weakening central authority and the gradual disintegration of the Serbian Empire. Vukašin's holdings included lands in western Macedonia, Kosovo and Metohija. In 1370 or 1371, he crowned Marko "young king"; this title included the possibility that Marko would succeed the childless Uroš on the Serbian throne
1464 Thomas de Ros 9th Baron de Ros a follower of the House of Lancaster during the Wars of the Roses.
1510 Sandro Botticelli an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later as a "golden age", a thought, suitably enough, he expressed at the head of his Vita of Botticelli. Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting. Among his best known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera
1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham an English nobleman. He was the son of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, and Katherine Woodville, whose sister, Queen Elizabeth Woodville, was the wife of King Edward He was convicted of treason, and executed on 17 May 1521
1531 Konrad Wimpina a German Roman Catholic theologian and humanist of the early Reformation period. He was a quiet and stubborn conservative, considered quiet but somewhat narrow. In theology he was a pupil of Martin Polich of Mellerstadt and a Thomist
1536 Francis Weston a gentleman of the Privy Chamber at the court of King Henry VIII of England. He became a friend of Henry VIII and gained a sad fame by being one of the men who were accused of high treason and adultery with Anne Boleyn, the king's second wife. Weston was condemned to death, together with George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford, Henry Norris, William Brereton and Mark Smeaton. They were all executed on 17 May 1536, two days before the Queen
1536 George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford an English courtier and nobleman, and the brother of queen consort Anne Boleyn. This made him the brother-in-law of King Henry VIII and the maternal uncle of Queen Elizabeth I of England. A prominent figure in the politics of the early 1530s, he was convicted of incest with Anne during the period of her trial for high treason. They were both executed as a result
1536 Henry Norris (courtier) a Groom of the Stool in the privy chamber of King Henry VIII. While a close servant of the King, he also supported the faction in court led by Queen Anne Boleyn, and when Anne fell out of favour, he was among those accused of treason and adultery with her. He was found guilty and executed, together with the Queen's brother, George Boleyn , Sir Francis Weston, William Brereton and Mark Smeaton. Most historical authorities argue that the accusations were untrue and part of a plot to get rid of Anne
1536 Mark Smeaton a musician at the court of Henry VIII of England, in the household of Queen Anne Boleyn. Smeaton, the Queen's brother George Boleyn , Henry Norris, Francis Weston and William Brereton were executed for alleged treason and adultery with Queen Anne
1536 William Brereton (groom) a Groom of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII. In May 1536, Brereton, the queen's brother, George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford, Henry Norris, Sir Francis Weston and a musician, Mark Smeaton, were tried and executed for treason and adultery with Anne Boleyn, the king's second wife. Many historians are now of the opinion that Anne Boleyn, Brereton and their co-accused were innocent
1551 Shin Saimdang a Korean artist, writer, calligraphist, noted poet, and the mother of the Korean Confucian scholar Yulgok. Often held up as a model of Confucian ideals, her respectful nickname was Eojin Eomeoni. Her real name was Yinsun. Her pennames were Saimdang, Inimdang and Imsajae
1558 Francisco de Sá de Miranda For the 19th century Venezuelan politician with similar name, see Francisco de Miranda.
1575 Matthew Parker Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 until his death in 1575. He was also an influential theologian and arguably the co-founder of a distinctive tradition of Anglican theological thought
1587 Gotthard Kettler the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.
1606 False Dmitriy I the Tsar of Russia from 21 July 1605 until his death on 17 May 1606 under the name of Dimitriy Ioannovich. He is sometimes referred to under the title of Dmitriy He was one of three impostors who claimed during the Time of Troubles to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevitch Dmitriy Ivanovich, who had supposedly escaped a 1591 assassination attempt. It is generally believed that the real Dmitriy died in Uglich and that this False Dmitriy's real name was Grigory Otrepyev, although this is far from certain
1607 Anna d'Este an important princess with considerable influence at the court of France and a central figure in the French Wars of Religion. In her first marriage she was Duchess of Aumale, then of Guise, in her second marriage Duchess of Nemours and Genevois
1622 Leonello Spada an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active in Rome and his native city of Bologna, where he became known as one of the followers of Caravaggio.
1625 Francisco Gómez de Sandoval 1st Duke of Lerma the first of the validos through whom the later Habsburg monarchs ruled. He was succeeded by Don Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares
1626 Joan Pau Pujol a Catalan and Spanish composer and organist of the late Renaissance and early Baroque. While best known for his sacred music, he also wrote popular secular music
1643 Giovanni Picchi an Italian composer, organist, lutenist, and harpsichordist of the early Baroque era. He was a late follower of the Venetian School, and was influential in the development and differentiation of instrumental forms which were just beginning to appear, such as the sonata and the ensemble canzona; in addition he was the only Venetian of his time to write dance music for harpsichord
1649 Gabriel Lalemant a Jesuit missionary and one of the eight Canadian Martyrs.
1656 Dirck Hals a Dutch painter of festivals and ballroom scenes. He was influenced by his elder brother Frans Hals
1662 Abraham de Fabert a Marshal of France.
1662 William Duke of Saxe-Weimar a duke of Saxe-Weimar.
1694 Johann Michael Bach a German composer of the Baroque period. He was the brother of Johann Christoph Bach, as well as father-in-law of Johann Sebastian Bach. He is sometimes referred to as the "Gehrener Bach" to distinguish him from the "Wuppertaler Bach", Johann Michael Bach
1700 Adam Adamandy Kochański a Polish mathematician.
1717 Bon Boullogne a French painter.
1727 Catherine I of Russia the second wife of Peter I of Russia, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death.
1729 Samuel Clarke an English philosopher and Anglican clergyman. He is considered the major British figure in philosophy between John Locke and George Berkeley
1737 Claude Buffier born in Poland of French parents, who returned to France and settled at Rouen soon after his birth.
1740 Jean Cavalier born at Mas Roux, a small hamlet in the commune of Ribaute near Anduze.
1760 Hieronim Florian Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian szlachcic.
1765 Alexis Clairaut a prominent French mathematician, astronomer, geophysicist, and intellectual.
1795 Thomas Pelham-Clinton 3rd Duke of Newcastle a British soldier and politician.
1797 Michel-Jean Sedaine a French dramatist and librettist, especially noted for his librettos for opéras comiques, in which he took an important and influential role in the advancement of the genre from the period of Charles-Simon Favart to the beginning of the Revolution.
1801 William Heberden an English physician.
1807 John Gunby considered by many to be "one of the most gallant officers of the Maryland Line under Gen. Smallwood". He entered service volunteering as a minuteman in 1775 and fought for the American cause until the end earning praise as probably the most brilliant soldier whom Maryland contributed to the War of Independence. Gunby was also the grandfather of Senator Ephraim King Wilson II
1808 Carl Gottlob Rafn a Danish Enlightenment scientist and civil servant. He wrote influential papers on a broad array of basic and applied sciences
1809 Leopold Auenbrugger the Austrian physician who invented percussion as a diagnostic technique. On the strength of this discovery, he is considered one of the founders of modern medicine
1810 Robert Tannahill a Scottish poet of labouring class origin. Known as the 'Weaver Poet', he wrote in the wake of Robert Burns and in the judgement of some is second only to him
1820 Vincenzo Brenna an Italian architect and painter who was the house architect of Paul I of Russia. Brenna was hired by Paul and his spouse Maria Fyodorovna as interior decorator in 1781 and by the end of 1780s became the couple's leading architect. Brenna worked on Pavlovsk Palace and Gatchina palaces, rebuilt Saint Isaac's Cathedral, and most notably created Saint Michael's Castle in Saint Petersburg. Most of his architectural works were created concurrently during Paul's brief reign. Soon after Paul was murdered in a palace coup Brenna, renowned for fraud and embezzlement barely tolerated by his late patron, retired and left Russia for an uneventful life in Saxony
1822 Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis Duc de Richelieu a prominent French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration. As a royalist, during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, he served as a ranking officer in the Russian Imperial Army, achieving the grade of Major General
1825 Stanislao Mattei O.F.M. Conv. , was an Italian Conventual Franciscan friar who was a noted composer, musicologist, and music teacher of his era
1829 John Jay an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and first Chief Justice of the United States.