Died on May 18

526 Pope John I Pope from 13 August 523 to his death in 526. He was a native of Siena , near Chiusdino, in Italy. He is the first pope known to have visited Constantinople while in office
893 Stephen I of Constantinople the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 886 to 893.
978 Frederick I Duke of Upper Lorraine the count of Bar and duke of Upper Lorraine. He was a son of Wigeric, count of Bidgau, also count palatine of Lorraine, and Cunigunda, and thus a sixth generation descendant of Charlemagne
1065 Frederick Duke of Lower Lorraine the count of Malmedy from 1035 and Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1046. He was a younger son of Frederick, Lord of Gleiberg, and Ermentrude, and grandson of Siegfried, Count of Luxembourg, hence his name
1090 Berthold I Duke of Swabia the Duke of Swabia from 1079 until his death. He was the only son of Rudolf of Rheinfelden, the German anti-king who opposed the Emperor Henry IV
1160 Eric IX of Sweden a Swedish king c.1155 – 1160. No historical records of Eric have survived, and all information about him is based on later legends that were aimed at having him established as a saint
1360 Gerhard VI of Jülich Count of Berg and Ravensberg the son of William V, Duke of Jülich and Joanna of Hainaut.
1401 Vladislaus II of Opole a Duke of Opole from 1356 , Count palatine of Hungary during 1367–1372, ruler over Lubliniec since 1368, Duke of Wieluń during 1370–1392, ruler over Bolesławiec from 1370 , Governor of Galicia–Volhynia during 1372–1378, ruler over Pszczyna during 1375–1396, Count palatine of Poland in 1378, Duke of Dobrzyń and Kujawy during 1378–1392 , ruler over Głogówek from 1383 and ruler over Krnov during 1385–1392.
1406 Balthasar Landgrave of Thuringia Margrave of Meissen and Landgrave of Thuringia from the House of Wettin.
1410 Rupert King of Germany Elector Palatine from 1398 and King of Germany from 1400 until his death.
1525 Pietro Pomponazzi an Italian philosopher. He is sometimes known by his Latin name, Petrus Pomponatius
1550 Jean Cardinal of Lorraine a French cardinal, who was archbishop of Reims, Lyon and Narbonne, bishop of Metz, Toul, Verdun, Thérouanne, Luçon, Albi, Valence, Nantes and Agen. He is sometimes known as the cardinal de Lorraine
1551 Domenico di Pace Beccafumi an Italian Renaissance-Mannerist painter active predominantly in Siena. He is considered one of the last undiluted representatives of the Sienese school of painting
1584 Ikeda Motosuke a samurai commander in the Sengoku period. He was the first son of Ikeda Tsuneoki. His young brother was Ikeda Terumasa
1675 Stanisław Lubieniecki a Polish Socinian theologist, historian, astronomer, and writer. He is the eponym of the lunar crater Lubiniezky
1675 Jacques Marquette Father Jacques Marquette S.J. sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded Ignace, Michigan. In 1673 Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River
1692 Elias Ashmole a celebrated English antiquary, politician, officer of arms, astrologer and student of alchemy. Ashmole supported the royalist side during the English Civil War, and at the restoration of Charles II he was rewarded with several lucrative offices
1708 Arvid Axel Mardefelt a Swedish Infantry General from the 18th century and a familiar of Charles XII of Sweden.
1733 Georg Böhm a German Baroque organist and composer. He is notable for his development of the chorale partita and for his influence on the young S. Bach
1752 Robert Tournières a French painter. After the Second World War, a street in the new Saint-Paul district of his birthplace of Caen was named rue Robert Tournières
1775 Johann Joachim Kändler the most important modelleur of the Meissen porcelain manufacture.
1780 Charles Hardy a Royal Navy officer and colonial governor of New York.
1781 Túpac Amaru II the leader of an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish in Peru. Although unsuccessful, he later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement and an inspiration to myriad causes in Peru
1783 Lucrezia Aguiari an Italian coloratura soprano. She possessed an unusually agile voice with a large vocal range that spanned slightly more than three and a half octaves; faculties that enabled her to perform the most difficult passage work. In a letter dated 24 March 1770 Leopold Mozart wrote of hearing her perform a C an octave above high C at the Ducal opera of Parma, "I could not believe that she was able to reach C soprano acuto, but my ears convinced me." Aldous Huxley also mentioned this event in his novel, Brave New World
1792 Levy Solomons a Jewish Canadian merchant and fur trader.
1793 Timur Shah Durrani the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the second and eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani
1795 Robert Rogers (soldier) an American colonial frontiersman. Rogers served in the British army during both the French and Indian War and the American Revolution. During the French and Indian War Rogers raised and commanded the famous Rogers' Rangers
1799 Pierre Beaumarchais a French playwright, watchmaker, inventor, musician, diplomat, fugitive, spy, publisher, horticulturalist, arms dealer, satirist, financier, and revolutionary.
1800 Alexander Suvorov the last Generalissimo of the Russian Empire.
1807 John Douglas (bishop of Salisbury) a Scottish scholar and Anglican bishop.
1808 Elijah Craig a Baptist preacher in Virginia, who became an educator and capitalist entrepreneur in the area of Virginia that later became the state of Kentucky. He has sometimes, although rather dubiously, been credited with the invention of bourbon whiskey
1812 John Bellingham the assassin of British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval. This murder is the only assassination of a British Prime Minister
1818 Maddalena Laura Sirmen an Italian composer, violinist, and later unsuccessful singer.
1829 Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony Queen consort of Spain as the wife of King Ferdinand VII of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Prince Maximilian of Saxony and his first wife, Princess Carolina of Parma , daughter of Duke Ferdinand of Parma. She was a member of the house of Wettin
1837 Marguerite Gérard a French painter and etcher. She was the daughter of Marie Gilette and perfumer Claude Gérard. At 8 years-old she became the sister-in-law of Jean-Honoré Fragonard, and when she was 14, she came to live with him. She was also the aunt of the artist Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard. Gérard became Fragonard's pupil in the mid-1770s and studied painting, drawing and printmaking under his tutelage. She appears to have executed five etchings in 1778 in collaboration with the master
1839 Caroline Bonaparte the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino, and a younger sister of Napoleon I of France.
1842 Joseph-Jacques Ramée a French architect, interior designer, and landscape architect working within the neoclassicist idiom.
1844 Richard McCarty (U.S. politician) an American politician from New York.
1849 José María Carreño a Venezuelan politician and military, Vice-president in the government of José María Vargas, and provisional President of Venezuela as interim caretaker in 1837. Jose Maria Carreño lent his shirt to Simón Bolívar, right after his death. There is little information about Carreño Blanco
1849 Samuel Amsler born at Schinznach, in the canton of Aargau. He studied his art under Johan Heinrich Lips and Karl Ernst Hess, at Munich, and from 1816 pursued it in Italy, and chiefly at Rome, till in 1829 he succeeded his former master Hess as professor of engraving in the Munich academy. The works he designed and engraved are remarkable for the grace of the figures, and for the wonderful skill with which he retains and expresses the characteristics of the original paintings and statues. He was a passionate admirer of Raphael, and had great success in reproducing his works. Amsler's principal engravings are: The Triumphal March of Alexander the Great, and a full-length Christ, after the sculptures of Thorwaldsen and Dannecker; the Entombment of Christ, and two Madonnas after Raphael; and the Union between Religion and the Arts, after Overbeck, his last work, on which he spent six years
1853 Lionel Kieseritzky a Baltic German chess master, famous primarily for a game he lost against Adolf Anderssen, which because of its brilliance was named "The Immortal Game".
1856 Georgios Sinas a Greek entrepreneur, banker and national benefactor. He was the founder of the Athens National Observatory
1861 Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov a Russian General of the Artillery from the Gorchakov family, who commanded the Russian forces in the latter stages of the Crimean War and later served as a Namestnik of Kingdom of Poland from 1856 until his death.
1861 Friedrich August von Ammon a German surgeon and ophthalmologist born in Göttingen. He was the son of theologian Christoph Friedrich von Ammon
1868 Carl Mayet a German chess master.
1879 Édouard Spach a French botanist.
1884 Heinrich Göppert a German botanist and paleontologist.
1885 Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville a French Academic painter who studied under Eugène Delacroix. His dramatic and intensely patriotic subjects illustrated episodes from the Franco-Prussian War, the Crimean War, the Zulu War and portraits of soldiers. Some of his works have been collected by the Hermitage Museum in Petersburg and by the Metropolitan Museum in New York
1887 William Smith (Virginia governor) a lawyer, congressman, the 30th and 35th Governor of Virginia, and a Major General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. On his appointment in January 1863, at the age of 65, Smith was the oldest Confederate general to hold field command in the war
1887 Alfred Vulpian a French physician and neurologist. He was the co-discoverer of Vulpian-Bernhardt spinal muscular atrophy and the Vulpian-Heidenhain-Sherrington phenomenon