May 19 events in history

639 Ashina Jiesheshuai and his tribesmen assaulted Tai zong at Jiucheng Palace
715 Pope Gregory II is elected
1051 Henry I of France is married to Anne of Kiev
1445 John II of Castile defeats the Infantes of Aragon at the First Battle of Olmedo
1499 Catherine of Aragon is married by proxy to Arthur, Prince of Wales. Catherine is 13 and Arthur is 12
1535 French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships, 110 men, and Chief Donnacona's two sons (whom Cartier had kidnapped during his first voyage)
1536 Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII of England, is beheaded for adultery, treason, and incest
1542 The Prome Kingdom falls to the Taungoo Dynasty in present-day Burma
1568 Queen Elizabeth I of England orders the arrest of Mary, Queen of Scots
1643 Thirty Years' War: French forces under the duc d'Enghien decisively defeat Spanish forces at the Battle of Rocroi, marking the symbolic end of Spain as a dominant land power
1649 An Act of Parliament declaring England a Commonwealth is passed by the Long Parliament. England would be a republic for the next eleven years
1655 The Invasion of Jamaica begins during the Anglo-Spanish War
1743 Jean-Pierre Christin developed the centigrade temperature scale
1749 King George II of Great Britain grants the Ohio Company a charter of land around the forks of the Ohio River
1776 American Revolutionary War: A Continental Army garrison surrenders in the Battle of The Cedars
1780 New England's Dark Day: A combination of thick smoke and heavy cloud cover causes complete darkness to fall on Eastern Canada and the New England area of the United States at 10:30 A.M
1802 Napoleon Bonaparte founds the Legion of Honour
1828 U.S. President John Quincy Adams signs the Tariff of 1828 into law, protecting wool manufacturers in the United States
1845 Captain Sir John Franklin and his ill-fated Arctic expedition depart from Greenhithe, England
1848 Mexican–American War: Mexico ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo thus ending the war and ceding California, Nevada, Utah and parts of four other modern-day U.S. states to the United States for US$15 million
1897 Oscar Wilde is released from Reading Gaol
1911 Parks Canada, the world's first national park service, is established as the Dominion Parks Branch under the Department of the Interior
1917 The Norwegian football club Rosenborg BK was founded
1919 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, initiating what is later termed the Turkish War of Independence
1921 The United States Congress passes the Emergency Quota Act establishing national quotas on immigration
1922 The Young Pioneer Organization of the Soviet Union is established
1934 Zveno and the Bulgarian Army engineer a coup d'état and install Kimon Georgiev as the new Prime Minister of Bulgaria
1941 Viet Minh, a communist coalition, formed at Cao Bằng Province, Vietnam
1942 World War II: In the aftermath of the Battle of the Coral Sea, Task Force 16 heads to Pearl Harbor
1943 World War II: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt set Monday, May 1, 1944 as the date for the Normandy landings ("D-Day"). It would later be delayed over a month due to bad weather
1950 A barge containing munitions destined for Pakistan explodes in the harbor at South Amboy, New Jersey, devastating the city
1950 Egypt announces that the Suez Canal is closed to Israeli ships and commerce
1959 The North Vietnamese Army establishes Group 559, whose responsibility is to determine how to maintain supply lines to South Vietnam; the resulting route is the Ho Chi Minh trail
1961 Venera program: Venera 1 becomes the first man-made object to fly-by another planet by passing Venus (the probe had lost contact with Earth a month earlier and did not send back any data)
1961 At Silchar Railway Station, Assam, 11 Bengalis die when police open fire on protesters demanding state recognition of Bengali language in the Bengali Language Movement
1962 A birthday salute to U.S. President John F. Kennedy takes place at Madison Square Garden, New York City. The highlight is Marilyn Monroe's rendition of "Happy Birthday"
1963 The New York Post Sunday Magazine publishes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Letter from Birmingham Jail, drafted shortly after his arrest on April 12th during the Birmingham campaign advocating for civil rights and an end to segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. The letter was in response to "A Call for Unity": a statement made by eight white Alabama clergymen against King and his methods, following his arrest, and became one of the most-anthologized statements of the African-American Civil Rights Movement
1971 Mars probe program: Mars 2 is launched by the Soviet Union
1986 The Firearm Owners Protection Act is signed into law by U.S. President Ronald Reagan
1991 Croatians vote for independence in a referendum
1997 The Sierra Gorda biosphere, the most ecologically diverse region in Mexico, is established as a result of grassroots efforts
2007 President of Romania Traian Băsescu survives an impeachment referendum and returns to office from suspension
2010 The Royal Thai Armed Forces concludes its crackdown on protests by forcing the surrender of United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship leaders