Born on May 20

370 Lucifer of Cagliari a bishop of Cagliari in Sardinia known for his passionate opposition to Arianism. He is venerated as a Saint in Sardinia, though his status remains controversial
1315 Bonne of Bohemia born Jutta , the second daughter of John the Blind, king of Bohemia, and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bohemia. She was the first wife of King John II of France; however, as her death occurred a year prior to his coronation, she was never a French queen. Jutta was referred to in French historiography as Bonne de Luxembourg. She was a member of the House of Luxembourg. Among her children were Charles V of France, Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, and Joan, Queen of Navarre
1364 Henry Percy (Hotspur) a late medieval English nobleman. He was known as one of the most valiant knights of his day, and was a significant captain during the Anglo-Scottish wars. He later led successive rebellions against Henry IV of England, and was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his career
1470 Pietro Bembo an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist, member of the Knights Hospitaller and a cardinal. He was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language, specifically Tuscan, as a literary medium, codifying the language for standard modern usage. His writings assisted in the 16th-century revival of interest in the works of Petrarch. Bembo's ideas were also decisive in the formation of the most important secular musical form of the 16th century, the madrigal
1537 Hieronymus Fabricius a pioneering anatomist and surgeon known in medical science as "The Father of Embryology.".
1542 Gasparo da Salò the name given to Gasparo di Bertolotti, one of the earliest violin makers and an expert double bass player. Around 80 of his instruments are still in existence: violins , alto and tenor violas, viols, violones and double basses, violas with only a pair of corners, ceteras
1554 Paolo Bellasio an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance. He is generally considered to be a member of the Roman School, though unusually for the group he seems to have written only madrigals
1593 Salomo Glassius a German theologian and biblical critic born at Sondershausen, in the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.
1663 William Bradford (Colonial printer) an early English printer in North America. He is best known as "the pioneer printer of the Middle colonies" and the head of a family that included publishers for 140 years. He was also known for controversies regarding freedom of the press
1664 Andreas Schlüter a German baroque sculptor and architect associated with the Petrine Baroque style of architecture and decoration.
1671 Emmanuel Lebrecht Prince of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen.
1682 Ursin Durand a French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, and historian.
1697 Stephen of Piperi a Saint of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
1706 Seth Pomeroy an American gunsmith and soldier from Northampton, Massachusetts. His military service included the French and Indian War and the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. He fought as a private soldier in the Battle of Bunker Hill, but was later appointed a major general in the Massachusetts militia
1714 Henry Bathurst 2nd Earl Bathurst a British lawyer and politician. He was Lord Chancellor of Great Britain from 1771 to 1778
1723 Francisco de Saldanha da Gama the third cardinal patriarch of Lisbon.
1726 Francis Cotes an English painter, one of the pioneers of English pastel painting, and a founding member of the Royal Academy in 1768.
1743 Toussaint Louverture the leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into the independent state of Haiti. The success of the Haitian Revolution shook the institution of slavery throughout the New World
1750 Stephen Girard a French-born, naturalized American, philanthropist and banker. He personally saved the U.S. government from financial collapse during the War of 1812, and became one of the wealthiest people in America, estimated to have been the fourth richest American of all time, based on the ratio of his fortune to contemporary GDP. Childless, he devoted much of his fortune to philanthropy, particularly the education and welfare of orphans. His legacy is still felt in his adopted home of Philadelphia
1754 Elisa von der Recke a Baltic German writer and poet.
1759 William Thornton a British-American physician, inventor, painter and architect who designed the United States Capitol, an authentic polymath. He also served as the first Architect of the Capitol and first Superintendent of the United States Patent Office
1764 Johann Gottfried Schadow a German sculptor.
1768 Andreas Vokos Miaoulis an admiral and politician who commanded Greek naval forces during the Greek War of Independence.
1768 Dolley Madison the wife of James Madison, President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She was noted for her social gifts, which boosted her husband’s popularity as President. In this way, she did much to define the role of the President’s spouse, known only much later by the title First Lady—a function she had sometimes performed earlier for the widowed Jefferson
1769 Aleksey Gorchakov a Russian general and statesman from the Gorchakov family.
1772 Sir William Congreve 2nd Baronet an English inventor and rocket artillery pioneer distinguished for his development and deployment of Congreve rockets, and a Tory Member of Parliament.
1776 Simon Fraser (explorer) now the Canadian province of British Columbia. Fraser was employed by the Montreal-based North West Company. By 1805, he had been put in charge of all the company's operations west of the Rocky Mountains. He was responsible for building that area's first trading posts, and, in 1808, he explored what is now known as the Fraser River, which bears his name. Simon Fraser's exploratory efforts were partly responsible for Canada's boundary later being established at the 49th parallel , since he as a British subject was the first European to establish permanent settlements in the area. According to historian Alexander Begg, Fraser "was offered a knighthood but declined the title due to his limited wealth"
1780 Bernardino Rivadavia the first president of Argentina, then called the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, from February 8, 1826 to July 7, 1827.
1788 Henry Smith (Texas Governor) first American-born Governor of the Mexican territory of Texas and briefly presided over the revolution there.
1789 Marcellin Champagnat born in Le Rosey, village of Marlhes, near Etienne , France. He was the founder of the Marist Brothers, a religious congregation of men in the Roman Catholic Church devoted to the Virgin Mary and dedicated to education
1799 Honoré de Balzac a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon Bonaparte
1802 David Octavius Hill a Scottish painter and arts activist. He formed Hill & Adamson studio with the engineer and photographer Robert Adamson between 1843 and 1847 to pioneer many aspects of photography in Scotland
1802 Princess Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym a German princess. She was the Grandmother of the Dutch Queen Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, who was named after her
1806 John Stuart Mill a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century". Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control
1809 Albert Newsam an American artist. Born deaf-mute and based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he created paintings and drawings, including portraits
1811 Alfred Domett an English colonial statesman and poet. He was New Zealand's fourth Premier
1813 William Smith (lexicographer) an English lexicographer.
1814 William Steeves a merchant, lumberman, politician and Father of Canadian Confederation.
1817 Christian Johansson a teacher, choreographer and coaching balletmaster for the Russian Imperial Ballet. Born Pehr Christian Johansson in Stockholm, Sweden, he moved to Russia as a dancer and stayed on as one of the most important teachers in Russian history. He is remembered in Russia as exemplifying the artistic beauty of the male dancer. He began teaching in 1860 and by 1869, had become the leading ballet instructor at the Imperial Ballet School. He stayed there until his death in 1903. Johansson studied under Bournonville and partnered the great ballerina Marie Taglioni
1817 Edward Armitage an English Victorian era painter whose work focussed on historical, classical and biblical subjects.
1818 William Fargo born in Pompey, New York. From the age of thirteen he had to support himself, obtaining little schooling, and for several years he was a clerk in grocery stores in Syracuse
1818 Eduard Totleben a Baltic German military engineer and Imperial Russian Army general. He was in charge of fortification and sapping work during a number of important Russian military campaigns
1820 Azriel Hildesheimer a German rabbi and leader of Orthodox Judaism. He is regarded as a pioneering moderniser of Orthodox Judaism in Germany and as a founder of Modern Orthodox Judaism
1820 John Reily Knox an American attorney who was the principal founder of Beta Theta Pi Fraternity at Miami University in 1839.
1822 Émile Erckmann a French writer, strongly associated with the region of Alsace-Lorraine. Almost all of his works were written jointly with Alexandre Chatrian under the name Erckmann-Chatrian
1822 Frédéric Passy a French economist and a joint winner of the first Nobel Peace Prize awarded in 1901.
1824 Nadezhda Khvoshchinskaya a Russian novelist, poet, literary critic and translator. Her married name was Zayonchkovskaya. She published much of her work under the pseudonym Krestovsky. She later added "alias" to her pseudonym to avoid being confused with the writer Vsevolod Krestovsky
1824 Cadmus M. Wilcox a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican–American War and also was a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
1825 Henry Huntly Haight the tenth governor of California from December 5, 1867 to December 8, 1871.
1825 George Phillips Bond an American astronomer. He was the son of William Cranch Bond. Some sources give his year of birth as 1826