Died on May 23

230 Pope Urban I Bishop of Rome or pope from 222 to 23 May 230. He was born in Rome and succeeded Pope Callixtus I, who had been martyred. It was previously believed for centuries that Urban I was also martyred. However, recent historical discoveries now lead scholars to believe that he died of natural causes
779 Emperor Daizong of Tang an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
1125 Henry V Holy Roman Emperor King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor , the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. Henry's reign coincided with the final phase of the great Investiture Controversy, which had pitted pope against emperor. By the settlement of the Concordat of Worms, he surrendered to the demands of the second generation of Gregorian reformers
1336 Wenceslaus of Płock a member of the House of Piast. He was Duke of Płock from 1313 until his death and was a vassal of Bohemia from 1329
1370 Toghon Temür considered the last Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
1410 Przemyslaus I Noszak Duke of Cieszyn a Duke of Cieszyn-Bytom-Siewierz from 1358 , from 1384 ruler over half of both Głogów and Ścinawa and since 1401 ruler over Toszek.
1423 Antipope Benedict XIII officially considered by the Catholic Church to be an antipope.
1482 Mary of York the second daughter of Edward IV of England and his queen consort Elizabeth Woodville.
1498 Girolamo Savonarola an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence, and known for his prophecies of civic glory, destruction of secular art and culture, and calls for Christian renewal. He denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He prophesied the coming of a biblical flood and a new Cyrus from the north who would reform the Church. This seemed confirmed when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and threatened Florence. While Savonarola intervened with the king, the Florentines expelled the ruling Medici and, at the friar’s urging, established a "popular" republic. Declaring that Florence would be the New Jerusalem, the world center of Christianity and "richer, more powerful, more glorious than ever", he instituted an extreme puritanical campaign, enlisting the active help of Florentine youth
1521 Thomas Stanley 2nd Earl of Derby an English peer.
1523 Ashikaga Yoshitane the 10th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who headed the shogunate first from 1490 to 1493 and then again from 1508 to 1521 during the Muromachi period of Japan.
1524 Ismail I Shah of Iran and the founder of the Safavid dynasty which survived until 1736. Isma'il started his campaign in Iranian Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, a Twelver Shia militant religious order, and unified all of Iran by 1509. Born in Ardabil in Northwestern Iran, he reigned as Shah Ismail I of Iran from 1501 to 1524
1662 John Gauden an English Bishop of Exeter then Bishop of Worcester and writer, and the reputed author of the important Royalist work Eikon Basilike.
1669 Joris van der Haagen a Dutch Golden Age painter specialized in landscapes.
1670 Ferdinando II de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany grand duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. He was the eldest child of Cosimo II de' Medici and Maria Maddalena of Austria. His 49 year rule was punctuated by the beginning of Tuscany's long economic decline. He married Vittoria della Rovere, with whom he had two children: Cosimo III de' Medici, his eventual successor, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, a cardinal
1691 Adrien Auzout a French astronomer.
1700 Jens Juel (diplomat) a Danish diplomat and statesman of great influence at the Danish court who was created Baron and granted Juellinge in 1672. He was the brother of Admiral Niels Juel
1701 William Kidd a Scottish sailor who was tried and executed for piracy after returning from a voyage to the Indian Ocean. Some modern historians deem his piratical reputation unjust, as there is evidence that Kidd acted only as a privateer. Kidd's fame springs largely from the sensational circumstances of his questioning before the English Parliament and the ensuing trial. His actual depredations on the high seas, whether piratical or not, were both less destructive and less lucrative than those of many other contemporary pirates and privateers
1701 Anne Hilarion de Tourville a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV. He was made Marshal of France in 1693
1749 Abraham ben Abraham a purported Polish nobleman of the Potocki family who converted to Judaism and was burned at the stake by the Roman Catholic Church because he had renounced Catholicism and had become an observant Jew. According to Jewish oral traditions, he was known to the revered Talmudic sage, the Vilna Gaon , and his ashes were interred in the relocated grave of the Vilna Gaon in Vilna's new Jewish cemetery. Some historians who have studied his story have stated that surprisingly little evidence of Potocki's existence has yet been discovered other than several 19th-century sources citing earlier oral histories, and they therefore consider that he most likely did not exist
1752 William Bradford (Colonial printer) an early English printer in North America. He is best known as "the pioneer printer of the Middle colonies" and the head of a family that included publishers for 140 years. He was also known for controversies regarding freedom of the press
1753 Franciszka Urszula Radziwiłłowa a Polish-Lithuanian noble dramatist and writer, first Polish woman playwright.
1754 John Wood the Elder an English architect, working mainly in Bath.
1776 Jeanne Julie Éléonore de Lespinasse owned a prominent salon in France.
1781 Ablai Khan a Kazakh khan of the Middle jüz. Born as Wali-ullah Abul-Mansur Khan, Ablai Khan belonged to the senior branch of descendants of the 15th century founder of the Kazakh state, Janybek Khan. In the first half of the 18th century, Ablai Khan proved to be a talented organizer and commander as he headed detachments of the Kazakh militia fighting the Dzungars. He participated in the most significant battles against the Dzungars from the 1720s to the 1750s, for which he was declared a "batyr" by the people
1783 James Otis Jr. a lawyer in colonial Massachusetts, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution. His catchphrase "Taxation without representation is tyranny" became the basic Patriot position
1786 Maurice Benyovszky a Slovak-Hungarian count with Hungarian, Polish and Slovak ancestry. He was an explorer, writer, ruler and self declared King of eastern Madagascar, and military officer in the French, Polish, Austrian and American armies. In his memoirs he described himself on several occasions as a "Hungarian and Polish nobleman"
1790 Władysław Gurowski a noble of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Chamberlain of Polish king Augustus III of Poland from 1758; Great Crown Clerk from 1764; Court Lithuanian Marshal from 1768; Great Lithuanian Marshal from 1781
1793 William Hudson (botanist) a British botanist and apothecary based in London. His main work was Flora Anglica, published in 1762. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1761
1800 Henry Cort an English ironmaster. During the Industrial Revolution in England, Cort began refining iron from pig iron to wrought iron using innovative production systems. In 1783 he patented the puddling process for refining iron ore. The Henry Cort Community College bears his name and is located in the town of Fareham, in the south of Hampshire, England
1813 Géraud Duroc a French general noted for his association with Napoleon.
1815 Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg a German American clergyman and botanist.
1820 Richard Grindall an officer in the British Royal Navy whose distinguished career during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic Wars was highlighted by his presence at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805, Despite being slow and ungainly, his 98-gun ship Prince was instrumental in the final stages of the battle and especially in the chaotic storm which followed, when many of the British fleet would have been lost but for the efforts of Grindall and other captains of largely undamaged ships.
1831 Ciro Menotti an Italian patriot.
1836 Edward Livingston an American jurist and statesman. He was an influential figure in the drafting of the Louisiana Civil Code of 1825, a civil code based largely on the Napoleonic Code. He represented both New York, and later Louisiana in Congress and he served as the U.S. Secretary of State from 1831 to 1833
1838 Jan Willem Janssens a Dutch nobleman, soldier and statesman who served both as the governor of the Cape Colony and governor-general of the Dutch East Indies.
1841 Franz Xaver von Baader a German Roman Catholic philosopher and theologian.
1842 José de Espronceda a Romantic Spanish poet.
1854 Justo Figuerola President of Peru during two brief periods; for a few days in 1843 and briefly in 1844.
1855 Charles Robert Malden a nineteenth-century British naval officer, surveyor and educator. He is the discoverer of Malden Island in the central Pacific, which is named in his honour. He also founded Windlesham House School at Brighton, England
1857 Augustin-Louis Cauchy reputed to be an early pioneer of analysis. He started the project of formulating and proving the theorems of calculus in a rigorous manner, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra exploited by earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and initiated the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy exercised a great influence over his contemporaries and successors. His writings cover the entire range of mathematics and mathematical physics
1862 Friedrich Ruthardt a German oboist and composer. He played in the Stuttgart court orchestra, and composed chorales as well as pieces for the oboe and the zither. One of the best-known 19th-century oboe concertos, by Bernhard Molique, was likely written for Ruthardt, and first performed at Stuttgart in 1829
1865 Stanisław Brzóska a Polish priest, general, one of leaders of the Polish insurgency and the last partisan of the January Uprising. He commanded the Polish detachment in South Podlasie and northern Lesser Poland, defeating the Russians in many skirmishes. He was captured eventually in April 1865, sentenced to death by the Russians and hanged publicly in Sokołów Podlaski in the presence of a crowd of 10,000 people
1868 Kit Carson an American trailblazer and Indian fighter. Carson left home in rural present-day Missouri at age 16 and became a mountain man and trapper in the West. Carson explored the west to Spanish California, and north through the Rocky Mountains. He lived among and married into the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes. He was hired by John Fremont as a guide, and led 'the Pathfinder' through much of California, Oregon and the Great Basin area. He achieved national fame through Fremont's accounts of his expeditions and was featured as the hero of many dime novels
1869 Apollo Korzeniowski a Polish poet, playwright, clandestine political activist, and father of Polish-English novelist Joseph Conrad.
1871 Jarosław Dąbrowski a Polish left-wing independence activist and general. Supporter of the Paris Commune.. He was a participant in the January Uprising and was one of the leaders of the "Red" faction among the insurrectionists as a member of the Central National Committee and the Provisional National Government
1871 Ramón de la Sagra a Galician anarchist, politician, writer and botanist, who founded the world's first anarchist journal, El Porvenir.
1872 George François Reuter a French botanist and plant collector. He was born in Paris, and died in Geneve
1873 Pierre-Jean De Smet a Belgian Roman Catholic priest and member of the Society of Jesus , active in missionary work among the Native Americans of the Midwestern United States in the mid-19th century.
1874 Sylvain Van de Weyer a Belgian politician, and then the Belgian Minister at the Court of James's, effectively the ambassador to the United Kingdom.