May 23 events in history

844 Battle of Clavijo: The Apostle Saint James the Greater is said to have miraculously appeared to a force of outnumbered Asturians and aided them against the forces of the Emir of Cordoba
1430 Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne
1498 Girolamo Savonarola is burned at the stake in Florence, Italy
1533 The marriage of King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon is declared null and void
1568 The Netherlands declare their independence from Spain
1568 Dutch rebels led by Louis of Nassau, defeat Jean de Ligne, Duke of Arenberg, and his loyalist troops in the Battle of Heiligerlee, opening the Eighty Years' War
1609 Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia takes place
1618 The Second Defenestration of Prague precipitates the Thirty Years' War
1701 After being convicted of piracy and of murdering William Moore, Captain William Kidd is hanged in London, England
1706 Battle of Ramillies: John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, defeats a French army under Marshal François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi
1788 South Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution as the 8th American state
1793 Battle of Famars during the Flanders Campaign of the War of the First Coalition
1829 Accordion patent granted to Cyrill Demian in Vienna, Austrian Empire
1844 Declaration of the Báb the evening before the 23rd: a merchant of Shiraz announces that he is a Prophet and founds a religious movement that would later be brutally crushed by the Persian government. He is considered to be a forerunner of the Bahá'í Faith, and Bahá'ís celebrate the day as a holy day
1846 Mexican–American War: President Mariano Paredes of Mexico unofficially declares war on the United States
1873 The Canadian Parliament establishes the North-West Mounted Police, the forerunner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
1900 American Civil War: Sergeant William Harvey Carney is awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism in the Assault on the Battery Wagner in 1863
1907 The unicameral Parliament of Finland gathers for its first plenary session
1911 The New York Public Library is dedicated
1915 World War I: Italy joins the Allies after they declare war on Austria-Hungary
1932 In Brazil, four students are shot and killed during a manifestation against the Brazilian dictator Getúlio Vargas, which occurred in the city of São Paulo. Their names and surnames were used to form the MMDC, a revolutionary group that would act against the dictatorial government, especially in the Constitutionalist Revolution ("Revolução Constitucionalista", in Portuguese), the major uprising in Brazil during the 20th century
1934 The American bank robbers Bonnie and Clyde are ambushed by police and killed in Black Lake, Louisiana
1934 The Auto-Lite strike culminates in the "Battle of Toledo", a five-day melée between 1,300 troops of the Ohio National Guard and 6,000 picketers
1939 The U.S. Navy submarine USS Squalus sinks off the coast of New Hampshire during a test dive, causing the death of 24 sailors and two civilian technicians. The remaining 32 sailors and one civilian naval architect are rescued the following day
1945 World War II: Heinrich Himmler, the head of the Schutzstaffel, commits suicide while in Allied custody
1945 World War II: The Flensburg Government under Reichspräsident Karl Dönitz is dissolved when its members are captured and arrested by British forces at Flensburg in Northern Germany
1948 Thomas C. Wasson, the US Consul-General, is assassinated in Jerusalem, Israel
1949 The Federal Republic of Germany is established and the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany is proclaimed
1951 Tibetans sign the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet with China
1958 The satellite Explorer 1 ceases transmission
1967 Egypt closes the Straits of Tiran and blockades the port of Eilat at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping
1992 Italy's most prominent anti-mafia judge Giovanni Falcone, his wife and three body guards are killed by the Corleonesi clan with a half-ton bomb near Capaci, Sicily. His friend and colleague Paolo Borsellino will be assassinated less than 2 months later, making 1992 a turning point in the history of Italian Mafia prosecutions
1995 The first version of the Java programming language is released
1998 The Good Friday Agreement is accepted in a referendum in Northern Ireland with 75% voting yes
2002 The "55 parties" clause of the Kyoto Protocol is reached after its ratification by Iceland
2004 Part of Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport's Terminal 2E collapses, killing four people and injuring three others
2006 Alaskan stratovolcano Mount Cleveland erupts
2008 The International Court of Justice (ICJ) awards Middle Rocks to Malaysia and Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh) to Singapore, ending a 29-year territorial dispute between the two countries
2009 Former South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun commits suicide, jumping from a 45 meter cliff in Bongha, Gimhae, South Korea
2010 Jamaican police begin a manhunt for drug lord Christopher Coke, after the United States requested his extradition, leading to three days of violence during which at least 73 bystanders are killed
2012 Adam Lambert became the first openly gay artist to debut at #1 on the Billboard 200 Album Charts, with his album Trespassing
2013 The Interstate 5 bridge over the Skagit River collapses in Mount Vernon, Washington
2014 Seven people, including the perpetrator, are killed and another 13 injured in a killing spree near the campus of University of California, Santa Barbara