Died on May 24

1089 Lanfranc an Italian Benedictine monk and successively Prior of Bec Abbey, Abbot of the Abbey of St Stephen in Caen and Archbishop of Canterbury. Due to the places he is associated with, he is also known as Lanfranc of Pavia, Lanfranc of Bec or Lanfranc of Canterbury
1107 Raymond of Burgundy the ruler of Galicia from about 1090 until his death. He was the fourth son of Count William I of Burgundy and Stephanie. He married Urraca, future queen of León, and was the father of the future emperor Alfonso VII
1136 Hugues de Payens the co-founder and first Grand Master of the Knights Templar. With Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, he created the Latin Rule, the code of behavior for the Order
1153 David I of Scotland a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians , Earl of Northampton and Huntingdon and later King of the Scots. The youngest son of Malcolm III of Scotland and Margaret of Wessex, David spent his early years in Scotland but on the death of his parents in 1093 was forced into exile by his uncle and thenceforth king, Donald III of Scotland. Perhaps after 1100, he became a dependent at the court of King Henry I of England. There he was influenced by the Norman and Anglo-French culture of the court
1201 Theobald III Count of Champagne Count of Champagne from 1197 to his death. He was the younger son of Henry I, Count of Champagne and Marie, a daughter of Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He succeeded as Count of Champagne in 1197 upon the death of his older brother Henry II
1240 Skule Bårdsson a Norwegian nobleman and claimant to the royal throne against his son-in-law, King Haakon Haakonsson. Henrik Ibsen's play Kongs-Emnerne is about the dispute between Duke Skule and King Haakon
1351 Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Othman a sultan of the Marinid dynasty who reigned in Morocco between 1331 and 1348. In 1333 he captured Gibraltar from the Castilians, although a later attempt to take Tarifa in 1339 ended in fiasco. In North Africa he extended his rule over Tlemcen and Ifriqiya, which together covered the north of what is now Algeria and Tunisia. Under him the Marinid realms in the Maghreb briefly covered an area that rivaled that of the preceding Almohad Caliphate. However, he was forced to retreat due to a revolt of the Arab tribes, was shipwrecked, and lost many of his supporters. His son Abu Inan Faris seized power in Fez. Abu Al-Hasan died in exile in the High Atlas mountains
1425 Murdoch Stewart Duke of Albany a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389 he was Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402 he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England. After his father died in 1420, and while the future King James I of Scotland was himself held captive in England, Stewart served as Governor of Scotland, until 1424 when James was finally ransomed and returned to Scotland. However, in 1425, soon after James's coronation, Albany was arrested, found guilty of treason, and executed, along with two of his sons. His only surviving heir was James the Fat, who escaped to Antrim, Ireland, where he died in 1429. Albany's wife Isabella of Lennox survived the destruction of her family, and would live to see the murder of James I and the restoration of her title and estates
1446 Ambroise de Loré baron of Ivry in Normandy, a French military commander, and companion of Joan of Arc. A reforming commisar of trades and police and "Garde de la prévôté de Paris" , he became Provost of Paris from 1436 to 1446. He also fought at the battles of Agincourt, la Brossinière, Orleans and Patay
1465 James Kennedy (bishop) a 15th-century Bishop of Dunkeld and Bishop of Andrews, who participated in the Council of Florence and was the last man to govern the diocese of Andrews purely as bishop. One of the Gaelic clan of Carrick he became the principal figure in the government of the minority of King James II of Scotland as well as founder of St Salvator's College, St Andrews
1472 Charles de Valois Duc de Berry a son of Charles VII, King of France. He spent most of his life in conflict with his elder brother, King Louis XI of France
1543 Nicolaus Copernicus a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center. The publication of this model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium just before his death in 1543 is considered a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making an important contribution to the Scientific Revolution
1592 Nikolaus Selnecker a German musician and theologian. He is now known mainly as a hymn writer. He is also known as one of the principal authors of the Formula of Concord along with Jakob Andreä and Martin Chemnitz
1612 Robert Cecil 1st Earl of Salisbury an English administrator and politician.
1618 John George I Prince of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania. From 1586 to 1603 he ruled the unified principality of Anhalt jointly with his brothers. After the partition of the principality in 1603, he ruled the principality of Anhalt-Dessau from 1603 to 1618
1627 Luis de Góngora a Spanish Baroque lyric poet. Góngora and his lifelong rival, Francisco de Quevedo, are widely considered the most prominent Spanish poets of all time. His style is characterized by what was called culteranismo, also known as Gongorism. This style existed in stark contrast to Quevedo's conceptismo
1632 Robert Hues an English mathematician and geographer. He attended Mary Hall at Oxford, and graduated in 1578. Hues became interested in geography and mathematics, and studied navigation at a school set up by Walter Raleigh. During a trip to Newfoundland, he made observations which caused him to doubt the accepted published values for variations of the compass. Between 1586 and 1588, Hues travelled with Thomas Cavendish on a circumnavigation of the globe, performing astronomical observations and taking the latitudes of places they visited. Beginning in August 1591, Hues and Cavendish again set out on another circumnavigation of the globe. During the voyage, Hues made astronomical observations in the South Atlantic, and continued his observations of the variation of the compass at various latitudes and at the Equator. Cavendish died on the journey in 1592, and Hues returned to England the following year
1665 María de Ágreda a Catholic Franciscan nun and author known for reports of bilocation between Spain and New Mexico and West Texas in the 17th century. In religious life, she was known as Sor María de Jesús de Ágreda. Popular culture since the 17th century has also dubbed her as the Lady in Blue and the Blue Nun. She wrote a series of books about the life of Blessed Virgin Mary
1697 Johann Adolf I Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels a duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt and member of the House of Wettin. He was the first son of August, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, and his first wife, Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1704 Laurens de Graaf a Dutch pirate, mercenary, and naval officer in the service of the French colony of Saint-Domingue during the late 17th and early 18th century.
1725 Jonathan Wild a London underworld figure, notable for operating on both sides of the law, posing as a public-spirited crimefighter, titled ‘Thief Taker General’.
1734 Georg Ernst Stahl a German chemist, physician and philosopher. He was a supporter of vitalism, and until the late 18th century his works on phlogiston were accepted as an explanation for chemical processes. He died in Berlin
1752 Charles Parrocel a French painter and engraver and a specialist in battle and hunt paintings.
1773 Jan Zach a Czech composer, violinist and organist. Although he was a gifted and versatile composer capable of writing both in Baroque and Classical idioms, his eccentric personality led to numerous conflicts and lack of steady employment since about 1756
1792 George Brydges Rodney 1st Baron Rodney a British naval officer. He is best known for his commands in the American War of Independence, particularly his victory over the French at the Battle of the Saintes in 1782. It is often claimed that he was the commander to have pioneered the tactic of "breaking the line"
1805 Fedot Shubin widely regarded as the greatest sculptor of 18th-century Russia.
1806 John Campbell 5th Duke of Argyll a Scottish soldier and nobleman. After serving as a junior officer in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession, he was given command of a regiment and was redeployed to Scotland where he opposed the Jacobites at Loch Fyne at an early stage of the Jacobite Rebellion and went on to fight against them at the Battle of Falkirk Muir and then at the Battle of Culloden. He later became adjutant-general in Ireland and spent some 20 years as a Member of Parliament before retiring to Inveraray Castle
1819 Jan Hendrik van Kinsbergen a Dutch naval officer. Having had a good scientific education, Van Kinsbergen was a proponent of fleet modernization and wrote many books about naval organization, discipline and tactics
1820 Francisco Antonio Mourelle a Galician naval officer and explorer serving the Spanish crown. He was born in 1750 at San Adrián de Corme , near La Coruña, Galicia
1823 Franz de Paula Adam von Waldstein an Austrian soldier, explorer and naturalist.
1831 Benjamin Carr an American composer, singer, teacher, and music publisher. Born in London, he studied organ with Charles Wesley and composition with Samuel Arnold. In 1793 he traveled to Philadelphia with a stage company, and a year later went with the same company to New York, where he stayed until 1797. Later that year he moved to Philadelphia, where he became a prominent member of the city’s musical life. He was "decidedly the most important and prolific music publisher in America during the 1790s , conducting, in addition to his Philadelphia business, a New York branch from 1794 to 1797, when it was acquired by James Hewitt"
1833 John Randolph of Roanoke a planter, and a Congressman from Virginia, serving in the House of Representatives at various times between 1799 and 1833, the Senate , and also as Minister to Russia. After serving as President Thomas Jefferson's spokesman in the House, he broke with Jefferson in 1803 and became the leader of the "Old Republican" or "Quids", an extreme states' rights vanguard of the Democratic-Republican Party who wanted to restrict the role of the federal government. Specifically, Randolph promoted the Principles of '98, which said that individual states could judge the constitutionality of central government laws and decrees, and could refuse to enforce laws deemed unconstitutional
1834 Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern (1764-1834) a German noblewoman member of the House of Stolberg and by her two marriages Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen and Württemberg.
1843 Sylvestre François Lacroix a French mathematician.
1847 Ludovico Micara an Italian Capuchin and Cardinal. He was born at Frascati. Ordained in 1798, he became Dean of the College of Cardinals in 1824
1848 Annette von Droste-Hülshoff a 19th-century German writer and composer. She was one of the most important German poets and author of the novella Die Judenbuche
1850 Michał Gedeon Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian szlachcic, senator, owner of the Nieborów and others properties.
1851 Christian Friedrich Tieck a German sculptor and a brother of Ludwig and Sophie Tieck.
1861 Elmer E. Ellsworth a law clerk and soldier, best known as the first conspicuous casualty of the American Civil War.
1866 José Ignacio Pavón a Mexican lawyer, jurist and politician. From 13 August 1860 to 15 August 1860, he served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico in opposition to Benito Juárez, the constitutional president
1871 Sir Oswald Mosley 2nd Baronet of Ancoats a British politician and writer.
1871 Georges Darboy a French Catholic priest, later bishop of Nancy then archbishop of Paris. He was among a group of prominent hostages executed as the Paris Commune of 1871 was about to be overthrown
1872 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld a German painter, associated with the Nazarene movement.
1876 Henry Kingsley an English novelist, brother of the better-known Charles Kingsley. He was an early exponent of Muscular Christianity in his 1859 work The Recollections Of Geoffrey Hamlyn
1877 Philip Pearsall Carpenter Rev. who in 1841, was ordained Presbyterian minister in England, and a Doctorate of Philosophy in 1860, and whose field work as a malacologist or conchologist in North America is still well regarded today. A man of many talents, he wrote, published, taught, and was a volunteer explaining the growing study of shells in North America
1879 William Lloyd Garrison a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded in 1831 and published in Massachusetts until slavery was abolished by Constitutional amendment after the American Civil War. He was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. In the 1870s, Garrison became a prominent voice for the woman suffrage movement
1881 William Patrick Adam a British colonial administrator and Liberal politician. He was twice First Commissioner of Works under William Ewart Gladstone and also served briefly as Governor of Madras between 1880 and 1881
1881 Samuel Palmer a British landscape painter, etcher and printmaker. He was also a prolific writer. Palmer was a key figure in Romanticism in Britain and produced visionary pastoral paintings
1883 Otto Wilhelm Furuhjelm a Russian lieutenant-general of Finnish descent.
1883 Gabriel Valentin a German physiologist and professor of physiology at the University of Bern for 45 years.