Born on May 25

1048 Emperor Shenzong of Song the sixth emperor of the Chinese Song dynasty. His personal name was Zhao He reigned from 1067 to 1085
1320 Toghon Temür considered the last Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
1334 Emperor Sukō the third of Ashikaga Pretenders during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1348 through 1351
1458 Mahmud Begada the most prominent sultan of Gujarat. He was the great-grandson of Ahmad Shah I, the founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty, and of the city of Ahmedabad in the present-day state of Gujarat, India. He was known to be quite religious. By his conquests, he expanded the territory of the Gujarat Sultanate to its maximum till its conquest of Malwa, and ruled for 43 years. He titled himself, Sultân al-Barr, Sultân al-Bahr, 'Sultan of the Land, Sultan of the Sea'
1550 Camillus de Lellis an Italian priest who founded a religious Order dedicated to the care of the sick.
1572 Maurice Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel in the Holy Roman Empire from 1592 to 1627.
1606 Charles Garnier (missionary) a Jesuit missionary, who was killed in a Tobacco Nation village on December 7, 1649.
1616 Carlo Dolci an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in Florence, known for highly finished religious pictures, often repeated in many versions.
1661 Claude Buffier born in Poland of French parents, who returned to France and settled at Rouen soon after his birth.
1690 Joseph Johann Adam Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein from 1721 to his death.
1699 Anna Leszczyńska (1699–1717) a Polish noblewoman from the Leszczyński family and later Royal Princess of Poland when her father became King in 1704.
1713 Andrzej Mokronowski a notable member of the Polish szlachta, a politician and general of the Polish Army.
1713 John Stuart 3rd Earl of Bute a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain under George III, and was arguably the last important favourite in British politics. He was the first Prime Minister from Scotland following the Acts of Union in 1707
1725 Samuel Ward (American statesman) a farmer, politician, Supreme Court Justice, Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and a delegate to the Continental Congress. The son of an earlier Rhode Island Governor, Richard Ward, he was well educated as he grew up in a large Newport, Rhode Island family. After marrying, he and his new wife received property in Westerly, Rhode Island from his father-in-law, and upon settling there he took up farming. Entering politics as a fairly young man, he soon took sides in the hard money/paper money controversy, favoring hard money, or specie. His primary rival over the money issue was Providence politician Stephen Hopkins, and the two men became bitter rivals, alternating as governors of the colony for several terms
1743 Georg Christian Unger a German architect who was a pupil of the architect Carl von Gontard and served Frederick II of Prussia. Among his works were the Brandenburg Gate in Potsdam and the Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin
1749 Gregorio Funes an Argentine clergyman, educator, historian, journalist and lawmaker who played a significant role in his nation's early, post-independence history.
1751 Nathaniel Brassey Halhed an English Orientalist and philologist. Halhed was born at Westminster. He was educated at Harrow, where he began his intimacy with Richard Brinsley Sheridan, which continued after he entered Christ Church, Oxford. At Oxford he also made the acquaintance of William Jones, the famous Orientalist, who induced him to study Arabic. Accepting a writership in the service of the East India Company, Halhed went out to India, and here, at the suggestion of Warren Hastings, by whose orders it had been compiled, translated the Hindu legal code from a Persian version of the original Sanskrit. This translation was published in 1776 under the title A Code of Gentoo Laws.In 1778 he published a Bengali grammar, to print which he set up, at Hugli, the first Bengali press in India. It is claimed that he was the first writer to call attention to the philological connection of Sanskrit with Persian, Arabic, Greek and Latin.In 1785 he returned to England, and from 1790–1795 was Member of Parliament for Lymington, Hants. For some time he was a disciple of Richard Brothers, and his unwise speech in parliament in defence of Brothers made it impossible for him to remain in the House of Commons, from which he resigned in 1795. He subsequently obtained a home appointment under the East India Company. He died in London on 18 February 1830. His collection of Oriental manuscripts was purchased by the British Museum, and there is an unfinished translation by him of the Mahabharata in the library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal
1757 Louis-Sébastien Lenormand a French physicist, inventor and pioneer in parachuting. He is considered the first human to make a witnessed descent with a parachute and is also credited with coining the term parachute. After making a jump from a tree with the help of two modified umbrellas Lenormand refined his contraption and on December 26, 17831 jumped from the tower of the Montpellier observatory in front of a crowd that included Joseph Montgolfier, using a 14 foot parachute with a rigid wooden frame. His intended use for the parachute was to help entrapped occupants of a burning building to escape unharmed. Lenormand was succeeded by André-Jacques Garnerin who made the first parachute descent from high altitude with the help of a non-rigid parachute on October 22, 1797, and his wife Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse who made a similar descent two years later
1771 Johann Christian Rosenmüller a German anatomist born near Hildburghausen, Thuringia. He was the son of theologian Johann Georg Rosenmüller
1773 Benjamin Tappan an Ohio judge and Democratic politician who served in the Ohio State Senate and the United States Senate. He was an early settler of the Connecticut Western Reserve in northeastern Ohio and was one of the first settlers in Portage County and the founder of the city of Ravenna, Ohio
1783 Philip Pendleton Barbour a U.S. Congressman from Virginia and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. He was also the brother of Virginia governor and U.S. Secretary of War James Barbour as well as the first cousin of John Barbour and first cousin, once removed of John Barbour, Jr
1787 José María Bocanegra a Mexican lawyer and politician who was briefly interim president of Mexico in 1829.
1791 Minh Mạng the second emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841. He was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Cảnh, had died in 1801. He was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam and his rigid Confucian orthodoxy
1795 Victor Orsel a French painter. A student of Pierre Révoil in Lyon then of Pierre-Narcisse Guérin in Paris, he then spent 7 years at the villa Médicis in Rome , where he worked in the orbit of Overbeck and the Nazarene movement, and copied the Italian 'primitives', leaving his own art with an archaising tendency. He died unmarried
1802 Johann Friedrich von Brandt a German naturalist.
1803 Edward Bulwer-Lytton an English novelist, poet, playwright, and politician. He was immensely popular with the reading public and wrote a stream of bestselling novels which earned him a considerable fortune. He coined the phrases "the great unwashed", "pursuit of the almighty dollar", "the pen is mightier than the sword", "dweller on the threshold", as well as the infamous opening line "It was a dark and stormy night"
1803 Ralph Waldo Emerson an American essayist, lecturer, and poet, who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States
1810 Pierre Edmond Boissier a Swiss botanist, explorer and mathematician. He was the son of Jacques Boissier and Lucile Butini , daughter of Pierre Butini a well-known physician and naturalist from Geneva. With his sister, Valérie Boissier , he received a strict education with lessons delivered in Italian and Latin. Edmond's interest in natural history stemmed from holidays in the company of his mother and his grandfather, Pierre Butini at Valeyres-sous-Rances. His hikes in the Jura and the Alps laid the foundation of his zest for later exploration and adventure. He attended a course at the Academy of Geneva given by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
1812 Filippo Pacini an Italian anatomist, posthumously famous for isolating the cholera bacillus Vibrio cholerae in 1854, well before Robert Koch's more widely accepted discoveries thirty years later.
1813 Edmond de Sélys Longchamps a Belgian liberal politician and scientist.
1816 Henry Hopkins Sibley a brigadier general from Louisiana during the American Civil War, leading the Confederate States Army in the New Mexico Territory. His attempt to gain control of trails to California was defeated at the Battle of Glorieta Pass. A West Point graduate, he had served with the United States Army from 1838 until 1861 and the start of the Civil War, when he resigned to join the Southern Cause
1818 Jacob Burckhardt a historian of art and culture, and an influential figure in the historiography of both these fields. He is known as one of the major progenitors of cultural history. Siegfried Giedion described Burckhardt's achievement in the following terms: "The great discoverer of the age of the Renaissance, he first showed how a period should be treated in its entirety, with regard not only for its painting, sculpture and architecture, but for the social institutions of its daily life as well." Burckhardt's best known work is The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy
1821 Dominique Clos a French physician and botanist.
1821 Wilhelm Rüstow a Prussian-born Swiss soldier and military writer.
1821 Henri Alexis Brialmont a Dutch-born Belgian military engineer. He was one of the leading fortifications engineers in the 19th century
1821 Diederich Krug a German pianist and composer. He was born in Hamburg and studied under Jakob Schmitt. He wrote a large number of pieces for piano, around 350 in all, which were popular with amateur pianists. Typical examples are gathered in the Pianoforte-Album which appeared as 1220 in the Collection Litolff; it contains eight works: Chant d'Adieu , Le petit Chevalier , Einsames Haideblümchen , La petite Coquette , Minnelied , Tyrolienne , Der Wachtelruf , and Impromptu-Romance
1822 Heinrich Keil a German classical philologist. He was a son-in-law to educator Friedrich August Eckstein
1826 Danilo I Prince of Montenegro the Metropolitan or Prince-Bishop of Montenegro and later prince of Montenegro from 1851 to 1860. During his reign, Montenegro became a secular state, a lay principality instead of a bishopric-principality. He became involved in a war with the Ottoman Empire in 1852, the Porte claiming jurisdiction in Montenegro, and the boundaries between the two countries were not defined until 1858. Danilo, with the help of his elder brother, Voivode Mirko, defeated the Ottomans at Ostrog in 1853 and in the Battle of Grahovac in 1858. On January 12, 1855 at Njegoš he married Darinka Kvekić, who was born in a wealthy Serbian merchant family in Trieste on December 31, 1837 and died on February 14, 1892, daughter of Marko Kvekić and wife Jelisaveta Mirković. They had one daughter, Olga , who never married and died young
1830 Édouard Bureau a French physician and botanist.
1843 Princess Anna of Hesse and by Rhine the consort and second wife of Friedrich Franz II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
1845 Baldomer Galofre a Catalonian painter.
1845 Herman Laroche a Russian critic of classical music and composer who was renowned throughout Moscow.
1845 Lip Pike one of the stars of 19th century baseball in the United States. He was the first player to be revealed as a professional , as well as the first Jewish player. His brother, Jay Pike, played briefly for the Hartford Dark Blues during the 1877 season
1845 Eugène Grasset a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque. He is considered a pioneer in Art Nouveau design
1846 Princess Helena of the United Kingdom the third daughter and fifth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
1846 Naim Frashëri an Albanian poet and writer. He was one of the most prominent figures of the Albanian National Awakening of the 19th century, together with his two brothers Sami and Abdyl. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Albania
1849 František Ženíšek a Czech painter known best for his famous decorations of the Prague National Theatre foyer along with Mikoláš Aleš. In addition he painted the ceiling of the auditorium inside the theatre. He also contributed to the redecoration of the Prague National Museum
1852 William Muldoon the Greco-Roman Wrestling Champion, physical culturist and the first chairman of the New York State Athletic Commission. He once wrestled a match that lasted over seven hours. Nicknamed "The Solid Man," Muldoon established himself as champion in Greco-Roman wrestling in the 1880s and over the years gained a remarkable measure of public influence that would continue through his days as a health farm proprietor in Westchester County and his service on NYSAC. Muldoon was a mainstay in New York sports for over 50 years
1856 Louis Franchet d'Espèrey a French general during World War As commander of the large allied army based at Salonika, he conducted the successful Macedonian campaign which caused the collapse of the Southern front and contributed to the armistice.
1857 Siranush a famous ethnic Armenian actress.