Born on May 27

742 Emperor Dezong of Tang an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the oldest son of his father Emperor Daizong. His reign of 26 years was the third longest in the Tang dynasty. Emperor Dezong started out as a diligent and frugal emperor and he tried to reform the governmental finances by introducing new tax laws. His attempts to destroy the powerful regional warlords and the subsequent mismanagement of those campaigns, however, resulted in a number of rebellions that nearly destroyed him and the Tang Dynasty. After those events, he dealt cautiously with the regional governors, causing warlordism to become unchecked, and his trust of eunuchs caused the eunuchs' power to rise greatly. He was also known for his paranoia about officials' wielding too much power, and late in his reign, he did not grant much authority to his chancellors
1141 Eisai a Japanese Buddhist priest, credited with bringing the Rinzai school of Zen Buddhism and green tea from China to Japan. He is often known simply as Eisai/Yōsai Zenji , literally "Zen master Eisai"
1240 William de Warenne 5th Earl of Surrey the son of Hamelin de Warenne and Isabel, daughter of William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey. His father Hamelin granted him the manor of Appleby, North Lincolnshire
1272 Eric I Duke of Schleswig a Danish nobleman. He was the ruling Duke of Schleswig from 1260 until his death in 1272. He was the second son of King Abel of Denmark, Duke of Schleswig and Mechtild of Holstein
1332 Ibn Khaldun an Arab Muslim historiographer and historian, regarded to be among the founding fathers of modern sociology, historiography and economics.
1519 Girolamo Mei an Italian historian and humanist, famous in music history for providing the intellectual impetus to the Florentine Camerata, which attempted to revive ancient Greek music drama. He was born Florence, and died in Rome
1537 Louis IV Landgrave of Hesse-Marburg the son of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse and his wife Christine of Saxony. After the death of his father in 1567, Hesse was divided among his sons and Louis received Hesse-Marburg including Marburg and Giessen
1564 Margherita Gonzaga Duchess of Ferrara an Italian noblewoman, the daughter of William I, Duke of Mantua and Eleonora of Austria, and the sister of Vincent I, Duke of Mantua and Anna Caterina Gonzaga. She was the wife of Alfonso II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara and Modena, whom she married in February 1579. This was the duke's third marriage, and it was hoped that she would produce a male heir. She did not, which partially led to the city of Ferrara's acquisition by the Papal States
1576 Caspar Schoppe a German controversialist and scholar.
1584 Michael Altenburg a German theologian and composer.
1601 Antoine Daniel a Jesuit missionary at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, and one of the eight Canadian Martyrs.
1616 Christina Magdalena of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken Countess Palatine Christina Magdalena of Kleeburg of the House of Wittelsbach, Margravine of Baden-Durlach. She was the daughter of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg and Princess Catherine of Sweden. Christina Magdalena was a sister of Charles X of Sweden, and grew up in Sweden
1626 William II Prince of Orange sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. His only child, also named William, would go on to reign as William III of England and Ireland, as well as William II in Scotland
1639 Laura Martinozzi a Duchess consort of Modena. On the death of her husband, she became the regent of the Duchy in the name of her son, Francesco
1651 Louis Antoine de Noailles a French bishop and cardinal.
1652 Elizabeth Charlotte Princess Palatine a German princess and, as Madame, the wife of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of Louis XIV of France, and mother of France's ruler during the Regency. Louis invoked her hereditary claim to the Palatinate as pretext to launch the Nine Years' War in 1688. Her vast, frank correspondence provides a detailed account of the personalities and activities at the court of her brother-in-law, Louis XIV for half a century, from the date of her marriage in 1672
1684 Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg an Austrian general.
1738 Nathaniel Gorham a politician and merchant from Massachusetts. He was a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, and for six months served as the presiding officer of that body. He also attended the Constitutional Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1756 Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, prince-elector of Bavaria from 1799 to 1805, king of Bavaria from 1806 to 1825. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach
1761 Sir Thomas Munro 1st Baronet a Scottish soldier and colonial administrator. He was an East India Company Army officer and statesman
1771 Johann Severin Vater a German theologian, biblical scholar, and linguist.
1772 Marie Anne Lenormand a French professional fortune-teller of considerable fame during the Napoleonic era. In France Lenormand is considered the greatest cartomancer of all time, highly influential on the wave of French cartomancy that began in the late 18th century
1774 Francis Beaufort an Irish hydrographer and officer in Britain's Royal Navy. Beaufort was the creator of the Beaufort Scale for indicating wind force
1782 Antoni Jan Ostrowski a Polish noble , landowner, political and economic activist, general and publicist.
1787 Artur Potocki a Polish nobleman.
1794 Cornelius Vanderbilt an American business magnate and philanthropist who built his wealth in railroads and shipping. He was also the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family and one of the richest Americans in history. He provided the initial gift to found Vanderbilt University, which is named in his honor
1794 John Conolly an English psychiatrist.
1799 Henry-Clément Sanson a French executioner. He held the position of Royal Executioner of the City of Paris, serving King Louis-Philippe I from 1840 to 1847
1799 Fromental Halévy a French composer. He is known today largely for his opera La Juive
1815 Henry Parkes regarded as the Father of the Australian Federation. As the earliest advocate of a Federal Council of the colonies of Australia, a precursor to the Commonwealth of Australia, he was the most prominent of the Australian Founding Fathers
1818 Amelia Bloomer an American women's rights and temperance advocate. Even though she did not create the women's clothing reform style known as bloomers, her name became associated with it because of her early and strong advocacy
1818 Franciscus Donders a Dutch ophthalmologist. During his career, he was a professor of physiology in Utrecht, and was internationally regarded as an authority on eye diseases, directing the Netherlands Hospital for Eye Patients. Along with von Graefe and Helmholtz, he was one of the primary founders of scientific ophthalmology
1819 Julia Ward Howe a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, poet, and the author of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic".
1819 George V of Hanover the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus George V's reign was ended by the Unification of Germany.
1820 Mathilde Bonaparte a French princess and Salon holder. She was a daughter of Napoleon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte and his second wife, Catharina of Württemberg, daughter of King Frederick I of Württemberg
1821 Caroline Gravière a Gelgian writer.
1822 Louis Bouilhet a French poet and dramatist.
1822 Joachim Raff a German-Swiss composer, teacher and pianist.
1823 John G. Foster a career military officer in the United States Army and a Union general during the American Civil War whose most distinguished services were in North and South Carolina. A postbellum expert in underwater demolition, he wrote the definitive treatise on the subject in 1869. He continued with the Army after the war, using his expertise as assistant to the Chief Engineer in Washington, DC and at a post on Lake Erie
1825 John Quincy Marr a Virginia militia company captain and the first Confederate soldier killed by a Union soldier in combat in the American Civil War. Marr was killed at the Battle of Fairfax Court House , Virginia on June 1, 1861. He had been a delegate to the Virginia Secession Convention and ultimately supported secession of Virginia from the Union after initially opposing it
1827 Thomas Keith (doctor) a Victorian surgeon and amateur photographer from Scotland. He was one of seven sons of Rev. Alexander Keith, one of the ministers who broke away to form the Free Church of Scotland; his mother, Jane Blaikie , was the sister of Sir Thomas Blaikie, the Scottish magistrate. Three of Thomas Keith's brothers entered the medical profession
1832 Alexandr Aksakov a Russian author, translator, journalist, editor, and psychic researcher.
1833 Jean-Baptiste Moens a Belgian philatelist recognized as the first dealer in stamps for collectors. He was one of the original philatelic journalists
1835 Rudolf Seydel a German philosopher and theologian born in Dresden.
1836 Jay Gould a leading American railroad developer and speculator. He was long vilified as an archetypal robber baron, whose success at business made him the ninth richest U.S. citizen in history, though modern historians working from primary sources have discounted his portrayal by the contemporary press. Condé Nast Portfolio ranked Gould as the 8th worst American CEO of all time
1837 Wild Bill Hickok James Butler Hickok —known as "Wild Bill" Hickok—was a folk character of the American Old West. Although some of his exploits as reported at the time were fictionalized, his skills as a gunfighter and gambler, along with his reputation as a lawman, provided the basis for his enduring fame. Born and raised on a farm in rural Illinois, Hickok went west at age 18 as a fugitive from justice, first working as a stagecoach driver, then as a lawman in the frontier territories of Kansas and Nebraska. He fought for the Union Army during the American Civil War, and gained publicity after the war as a scout, marksman, actor, and professional gambler. Hickok was involved in several notable shootouts. He was shot from behind and killed while playing poker in a saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory by an unsuccessful gambler. The card hand he held at the time of his death has come to be known as the "Dead Man's Hand"
1837 Ivan Kramskoi a Russian painter and art critic. He was an intellectual leader of the Russian democratic art movement in 1860-1880
1837 Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov a notable representative of the Vorontsov family. He served as Minister of Imperial Properties in 1881-97 and the General Governor of Caucasus in 1905-15
1838 Antonio Baldissera an Italian general, active in the Ethiopian Empire during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
1839 François-Désiré Mathieu a French Bishop and Cardinal.