Died on May 27

366 Procopius (usurper) a Roman usurper against Valens, and member of the Constantinian dynasty.
866 Ordoño I of Asturias King of Asturias from 850 until his death.
927 Simeon I of Bulgaria the Great ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927, during the First Bulgarian Empire. Simeon's successful campaigns against the Byzantines, Magyars and Serbs led Bulgaria to its greatest territorial expansion ever, making it the most powerful state in contemporary Eastern Europe. His reign was also a period of unmatched cultural prosperity and enlightenment later deemed the Golden Age of Bulgarian culture
1039 Dirk III Count of Holland Count of Holland from 993 to May 27, 1039, until 1005 under regency of his mother. It is thought that Dirk III went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land around 1030, hence his nickname of Hierosolymita
1250 Raniero Capocci an Italian cardinal and military leader, a fierce adversary of emperor Frederick II.
1444 John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset an English nobleman and military commander.
1508 Lucrezia Crivelli a mistress of Ludovico Sforza, il Moro, Duke of Milan. She was the mother of Sforza's son, Giovanni Paolo I Sforza, Marquess of Caravaggio. Crivelli has been thought to be the subject of Leonardo da Vinci's painting, La belle ferronnière
1508 Ludovico Sforza Duke of Milan from 1489 until 1500. A member of the Sforza family, he was the second son of Francesco I Sforza. He was famed as a patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists, and presided over the final and most productive stage of the Milanese Renaissance. He is probably best known as the man who commissioned The Last Supper
1525 Thomas Müntzer an early Reformation-era German theologian, who became a rebel leader during the Peasants' War. He thought that the questioning of authority promoted by the Lutheran Reformation should be applied to the economic sphere. Under pressure, Luther had to distance from him, stating that the Reformation he supported was only spiritual. Müntzer was eventually captured, tortured and decapitated
1541 Margaret Pole Countess of Salisbury an English peeress. She was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, who was the brother of King Edward IV and King Richard III. She was one of two women in sixteenth-century England to be a peeress in her own right with no titled husband. One of the few surviving members of the Plantagenet dynasty after the Wars of the Roses, she was executed in 1541 at the command of King Henry VIII, who was the son of her cousin Elizabeth of York. Pope Leo XIII beatified her as a martyr for the Roman Catholic Church on 29 December 1886
1564 John Calvin an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions provoked a violent uprising against Protestants in France, Calvin fled to Geneva, Switzerland, where he published the first edition of his seminal work Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536
1569 François de Coligny d'Andelot one of the leaders of French Protestantism during the French Wars of Religion. The son of Gaspard I de Coligny, he was the younger brother of Odet, cardinal de Châtillon and Gaspard de Coligny the admiral
1581 Christopher Báthory a voivode of Transylvania. He succeeded his brother Stephen Báthory. He was the father of Sigismund Báthory and Gryzelda Bathory
1610 François Ravaillac a French factotum in the courts of Angoulême and a regicide. An occasional tutor and Catholic zealot, he murdered King Henry IV of France in 1610
1661 Archibald Campbell 1st Marquess of Argyll the de facto head of government in Scotland during most of the conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, also known as the British Civil War. He was a major figure in the Covenanter movement that fought for the Presbyterian religion and what they saw as Scottish interests during the English Civil War of the 1640s and 1650s. He is often remembered as the arch-enemy of the royalist general James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose
1675 Gaspard Dughet a French painter born in Rome.
1676 Paul Gerhardt a German hymn writer.
1690 Giovanni Legrenzi an Italian composer of opera, vocal and instrumental music, and organist, of the Baroque era. He was one of the most prominent composers in Venice in the late 17th century, and extremely influential in the development of late Baroque idioms across northern Italy
1702 Dominique Bouhours a French Jesuit priest, essayist, grammarian, and neo-classical critic. He was born and died in Paris
1707 Françoise-Athénaïs marquise de Montespan the most celebrated maîtresse en titre of King Louis XIV of France, by whom she had seven children.
1727 Henri de Nesmond a French churchman, bishop of Montauban, archbishop of Albi and archbishop of Toulouse.
1730 Leonardo Vinci an Italian composer, best known for his operas.
1734 Claude Audran III a French painter.
1739 Johann Gottfried Bernhard Bach the fourth child of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach to reach adulthood. Born in Weimar, he attended the Thomasschule in Leipzig, his father providing for his musical formation. In contrast to his elder brothers Wilhelm Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel he did not get the opportunity to study at the university after finishing school. Instead, he competed for a post as musician
1755 Ulrich Frédéric Woldemar Comte de Lowendal a Danish, German-born French soldier and statesmen. Born in Hamburg, he served in the armies of several countries, but is best known for his service in the French army during the War of the Austrian Succession. In the French campaign in the Austrian Netherlands against the Pragmatic Army he served as a subordinate to Maurice de Saxe. He led French forces that captured Ghent in 1745 and Bergen-op-Zoom in 1747. The King of France, Louis XV, made him a Marshal of France for his success in capturing Bergen op Zoom
1766 Ivan Polzunov a Russian inventor. He created the first steam engine in Russia and the first two-cylinder engine in the world
1770 Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach queen-consort of Denmark and Norway as the wife of King Christian VI of Denmark and Norway.
1781 Giovanni Battista Beccaria born at Mondovì, and entered the religious Order of the Pious Schools or Piarists, in 1732, where he studied, and afterward taught, grammar and rhetoric. At the same time, he applied himself with success to mathematics
1797 François-Noël Babeuf a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period. His newspaper Le tribun du people was best known for his advocacy for the poor and calling for a popular revolt against the Directory, the government of France. He was a leading advocate for democracy, the abolition of private property and the equality of results. He angered the authorities who were clamping down hard on their radical enemies. In spite of the efforts of his Jacobin friends to save him, Babeuf was executed for his role in the Conspiracy of the Equals
1803 Louis I of Etruria the first of only two Kings of Etruria.
1814 Frederick Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania and heir to the principality of Anhalt-Dessau.
1822 Augustus Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, and the author of one of the first modern novels to treat of same-sex love. He was the maternal grandfather of Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria
1829 James Smithson an English chemist and mineralogist. He was the founding donor of the Smithsonian Institution
1829 Daniel Stewart (Brigadier General) an American politician and brigadier general in the Georgia Militia. He joined the militia in 1776 and served during the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812
1831 Jedediah Smith a hunter, trapper, fur trader, trailblazer, author, cartographer and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the American West Coast and the Southwest during the 19th century. Nearly forgotten by historians almost a century after his death, Smith has been rediscovered as an American hero who was the first white man to travel overland from the Salt Lake frontier, the Colorado River, the Mojave Desert, and finally into California. Smith was the first United States citizen to explore and eastwardly cross the Sierra Nevada and the treacherous Great Basin. Smith also was the first American to travel up the California coast to reach the Oregon Country. Not only was he the first to do this, but he and Robert Stuart discovered the South Pass. This path became the main route used by pioneers to travel to the Oregon Country. Surviving three massacres and one bear mauling, Jedediah Smith's explorations and documented discoveries were highly significant in opening the American West to expansion by white settlers and cattlemen. In 1831, while searching for water off the Santa Fe Trail, Smith was mortally wounded by Commanche warriors
1840 Niccolò Paganini an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His Caprice 24 in A minor, 1, is among the best known of his compositions, and has served as an inspiration for many prominent composers
1848 Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom the 12th child and fifth daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Sophia is perhaps best known for the rumours surrounding a supposed illegitimate child to which she gave birth as a young woman
1864 Robert Torrens (economist) a Royal Marines officer, political economist, MP, owner of the influential Globe newspaper and prolific writer. Born in Londonderry, Ireland, he was the son of Robert Torrens of Hervey Hill. The Torrens family, thought to be descended from a Swedish officer in the service of William III of England, were a large and prominent Londonderry family. Among his numerous cousins were Sir Henry Torrens, the distinguished military adviser, and another Robert Torrens who was a judge of the Court of Common Pleas
1867 Thomas Bulfinch an American writer born in Newton, Massachusetts. Bulfinch belonged to a well-educated Bostonian merchant family of modest means. His father was Charles Bulfinch, the architect of the Massachusetts State House in Boston and parts of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.. Bulfinch supported himself through his position at the Merchants' Bank of Boston
1873 Pierre-Antoine Lebrun a French poet.
1878 Philipp Johann Ferdinand Schur a German-Austrian pharmacist and botanist born in Königsberg.
1879 Anna Petrovna Kern probably the best known love poem in the Russian language, written by Pushkin in 1825.
1885 Charles Rogier a Belgian liberal statesman and a leader in the Belgian Revolution of 1830. He became Prime Minister of Belgium on two separate occasions: from 1847 to 1852, and again from 1857 to 1868
1889 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Jessen a German botanist.
1891 Hagop Baronian an influential Ottoman Armenian writer, satirist, educator, and social figure in the 19th century. Born in Edirne, Baronian is widely acknowledged as the greatest Armenian satirist of all time, closely followed by Yervant Odian
1896 Aleksandr Stoletov a Russian physicist, founder of electrical engineering, and professor in Moscow University. He was the brother of general Nikolai Stoletov
1901 Artur Hazelius Immanuel Hazelius , Swedish teacher, scholar and folklorist, founder of the Nordic Museum and the open-air museum Skansen in Stockholm.
1907 Kevork Chavush an Armenian fedayee in the Ottoman Empire.
1910 Robert Koch a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist. The founder of modern bacteriology, he is known for his role in identifying the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and for giving experimental support for the concept of infectious disease. In addition to his trail-blazing studies on these diseases, Koch created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology, and made key discoveries in public health. His research led to the creation of Koch’s postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the "gold standard" in medical microbiology. As a result of his groundbreaking research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905
1914 Joseph Swan a British physicist and chemist. He is most famous for inventing an incandescent light bulb