Born on May 31

1015 Ernest I Duke of Swabia the Duke of Swabia. He was a younger son of Leopold I, the Babenberg Margrave of Austria. His mother was called Richardis of Sualafeldgau
1243 James II of Majorca King of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1276 until his death. He was the second son of James I of Aragon and his wife Violant, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary. In 1279, by the Treaty of Perpignan, he became a vassal of the Crown of Aragon
1443 Margaret Beaufort Countess of Richmond and Derby the mother of King Henry VII and paternal grandmother of King Henry VIII of England. She was a key figure in the Wars of the Roses and an influential matriarch of the House of Tudor. She founded two prominent Cambridge Colleges; Christ's College in 1505, and St John's College in 1511
1469 Manuel I of Portugal the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, , by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese civilization distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and the arts. In spite of its small size and population in comparison to the great land powers of Europe, it was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions and with a global dimension, for the first time in history, during Manuel's reign
1527 Agnes of Hesse a princess of Hesse by birth and by marriage Electress of Saxony.
1535 Alessandro Allori an Italian portrait painter of the late Mannerist Florentine school.
1556 Jerzy Radziwiłł (1556–1600) a Polish–Lithuanian nobleman from the Radziwiłł family. He was a Catholic bishop and cardinal. Radziwiłł was also an Imperial Prince
1557 Feodor I of Russia the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia , son of Ivan IV and Anastasia Romanovna. He was born in Moscow and crowned Tsar and Autocrat of all Russia at Assumption Cathedral, Moscow, on 31 May 1584
1597 Bernardino de Rebolledo a Spanish poet, soldier and diplomat , and one of the most original poets, of the 17th century in Spain. He was a descendent from 1st Count of Rebolledo, don Rodrigo, who received his surname and title from the king of Asturias and León don Ramiro I in 815 during the Reconquista
1597 Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac a French author, best known for his epistolary essays, which were widely circulated and read in his day. He was one of the founding members of Académie française
1612 Margherita de' Medici Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by her marriage to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma. Margherita was regent of Piacenza in 1635 and regent of the entire duchy in 1646 after the death of her husband
1613 John George II Elector of Saxony the Elector of Saxony from 1656 to 1680. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin
1637 Louis Laneau a French Bishop of the 17th century who was active in the kingdom of Siam. He was a member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society. He was initially nominated as the replacement of Mgr Ignace Cotolendi in charge of Nankin
1640 Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from September 29, 1669, to his death in 1673. Michael's reign was marked by struggles between the pro-Habsburg and pro-French political factions
1641 Patriarch Dositheos II of Jerusalem the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem between the years 1669-1707 and a theologian of the Orthodox Church. He was known for standing against influences of the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches. He convened the Synod of Jerusalem to counter the Calvinist confessions of Cyril Lucaris
1656 Marin Marais a French composer and viol player. He studied composition with Jean-Baptiste Lully, often conducting his operas, and with master of the bass viol Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe for six months. He was hired as a musician in 1676 to the royal court of Versailles. He did quite well as court musician, and in 1679 was appointed ordinaire de la chambre du roy pour la viole, a title he kept until 1725
1681 Joseph-François Lafitau a French Jesuit missionary, ethnologist, and naturalist. He is best known for his use of the comparative method in the field of scientific anthropology, the discovery of ginseng, and his writings on the Iroquois. Lafitau was the first of the Jesuit missionaries in Canada to have a scientific point of view. Francis Parkman praises Lafitau, stating, “none of the old writers are so satisfactory as Lafitau.”
1683 Jean-Pierre Christin a French physicist, mathematician, astronomer and musician. His proposal to reverse the Celsius thermometer scale was widely accepted and is still in use today
1711 Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey a German author who wrote in French. Besides his activities as a journalist or editor, he contributed to the French Encyclopédie. He died in Berlin
1718 Jacob Christian Schäffer a German dean, professor, botanist, mycologist, entomologist, ornithologist and inventor.
1725 Ahilyabai Holkar Template:Use Hindi.
1728 Jacob Vernes a Swiss theologian and Protestant pastor in Geneva, famous for his correspondence with Voltaire and Rousseau.
1732 Count Hieronymus von Colloredo Prince-Bishop of Gurk from 1761 to 1772 and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1771 until 1803, when the prince-archbishopric was secularized. After secularization, Colloredo continued until his death in 1812 as archbishop of Salzburg, but bereft of temporal power
1738 Stanislas de Boufflers a French statesman and writer.
1744 Richard Lovell Edgeworth an Anglo-Irish politician, writer and inventor.
1750 Karl August von Hardenberg a Prussian statesman and Prime Minister of Prussia. While during his late career he acquiesced to reactionary policies, earlier in his career he implemented a variety of Liberal reforms. To him and Baron vom Stein, Prussia was indebted for improvements in its army system, the abolition of serfdom and feudal burdens, the throwing open of the civil service to all classes, and the complete reform of the educational system
1753 Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud a lawyer and statesman, and a significant figure of the French Revolution. A deputy to the Assembly from Bordeaux, Vergniaud was a notably eloquent orator. He was a supporter of Jacques Pierre Brissot and the Girondist faction
1754 Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Marshal of France.
1754 Andrea Appiani an Italian neoclassical painter.
1756 Abbé Faria a Goan Catholic monk who was one of the pioneers of the scientific study of hypnotism, following on from the work of Franz Mesmer. Unlike Mesmer, who claimed that hypnosis was mediated by "animal magnetism", Faria understood that it worked purely by the power of suggestion. In the early 19th century, Abbé Faria introduced oriental hypnosis to Paris
1766 John Brewster Jr. a prolific, deaf itinerant painter who produced many charming portraits of well-off New England families, especially their children. He lived much of the latter half of his life in Buxton, Maine, USA, recording the faces of much of Maine's elite society of his time
1773 Ludwig Tieck a German poet, translator, editor, novelist, writer of Novellen, and critic, who was one of the founding fathers of the Romantic movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
1793 Charles Blacker Vignoles an influential British railway engineer, and eponym of the Vignoles rail.
1801 Johann Georg Baiter a Swiss philologist and textual critic.
1804 Louise Farrenc a French composer, virtuosa pianist and teacher. Born Jeanne-Louise Dumont in Paris, she was the daughter of Jacques-Edme Dumont, a successful sculptor, and sister to Auguste Dumont
1817 Édouard Deldevez a French violinist, conductor at important Parisian musical institutions, composer, and music teacher.
1817 Georg Herwegh a German poet.
1818 Jules Jamin a French physicist. He was professor of physics at École Polytechnique from 1852 to 1881 and received the Rumford Medal in 1858 for his work on light. He improved Brewster's inclined interference plates with the development of the Jamin interferometer
1818 John Albion Andrew an American lawyer and politician in Massachusetts. He was elected in 1860 as the 25th Governor of Massachusetts, serving between 1861 and 1866, and led the state's contributions to the Union cause during the American Civil War. He was a guiding force behind the creation of some of the first African-American units in the United States Army, including the famed 54th Massachusetts Infantry
1819 Walt Whitman an American poet, essayist and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works. Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon, often called the father of free verse. His work was very controversial in its time, particularly his poetry collection Leaves of Grass, which was described as obscene for its overt sexuality
1822 Edward Dembowski a Polish philosopher, literary critic, journalist, and leftist independence activist.
1824 Ernst Christian Julius Schering a German mathematician.
1835 Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville a French Academic painter who studied under Eugène Delacroix. His dramatic and intensely patriotic subjects illustrated episodes from the Franco-Prussian War, the Crimean War, the Zulu War and portraits of soldiers. Some of his works have been collected by the Hermitage Museum in Petersburg and by the Metropolitan Museum in New York
1835 Hijikata Toshizō the vice-commander of Shinsengumi, a great swordsman and a talented Japanese military leader who resisted the Meiji Restoration.
1836 Jules Chéret a French painter and lithographer who became a master of Belle Époque poster art. He has been called the father of the modern poster
1837 Nikolai Uspensky a Russian writer, and a cousin of fellow writer Gleb Uspensky.
1837 Stephen Dodson Ramseur a Confederate general in the American Civil War, at one point the youngest in the army. He impressed Lee by his actions at Malvern Hill and Chancellorsville, where his brigade led Stonewall Jackson’s flank attack, taking 50% casualties. On the first day of Gettysburg, he dramatically routed a Union brigade, sending it running through the town, though his superiors did not authorise further pursuit. Ramseur also distinguished himself in the Overland campaign and the Valley campaign, where he was mortally wounded at Cedar Creek
1838 Henry Sidgwick an English utilitarian philosopher and economist. He was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research and a member of the Metaphysical Society, and promoted the higher education of women. His work in economics has also had a lasting influence. He also founded Newnham College in Cambridge in 1875. Newnham College is a women-only constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It was the second Cambridge college to admit women after Girton College. The co-founder of the college was Millicent Garrett Fawcett. He joined the Cambridge Apostles intellectual secret society in 1856
1847 William Pirrie 1st Viscount Pirrie a leading Irish shipbuilder and businessman. He was chairman of Harland and Wolff, shipbuilders, between 1895 and 1924, and also served as Lord Mayor of Belfast between 1896 and 1898. He was ennobled as Baron Pirrie in 1906, appointed a Knight of the Order of St Patrick in 1908 and made Viscount Pirrie in 1921
1850 Alphonse Pénaud a 19th-century French pioneer of aviation design and engineering. He was the originator of the use of twisted rubber to power model aircraft, and his 1871 model airplane, which he called the Planophore, was the first truly successful automatically stable flying model. He went on to design a full sized aircraft with many advanced features, but was unable to get any support for the project, and eventually committed suicide in 1880, aged 30