Died on May 4

784 Arbeo of Freising an early medieval author and Bishop of Freising from 764.
1003 Herman II Duke of Swabia a member of the Conradine dynasty. He was duke of Swabia from 997 to his death. Between January and October 1002 Herman II attempted, unsuccessfully, to become king of Germany
1406 Coluccio Salutati a Tuscan humanist and man of letters, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence; as chancellor of the Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the Medici.
1436 Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson a Swedish rebel leader and later statesman. He was the leader of the Engelbrekt rebellion in 1434 against Eric of Pomerania, king of the Kalmar Union
1436 John I Count of Foix Count of Foix from 1428 until his death in 1436. He succeeded his mother Isabella, Countess of Foix. His father was Archambaud de Grailly
1471 Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales the only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou. He was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury, making him the only heir apparent to the English throne ever to die in battle
1519 Lorenzo de' Medici Duke of Urbino the ruler of Florence from 1513 to his death in 1519. He was also Duke of Urbino from 1516 to 1519. His illegitimate son, Alessandro de' Medici, became the first Duke of Florence
1528 Bernhard Strigel a German portrait and historical painter of the Swabian school, the most important of a family of artists established at Memmingen. He was born at Memmingen and was probably a pupil of Zeitblom at Ulm. He stood in high favor with the Emperor Maximilian I, in whose service he repeatedly journeyed to Augsburg, Innsbruck, and Vienna
1535 Augustine Webster an English Catholic martyr. He was the prior of Our Lady of Melwood, a Carthusian house at Epworth, on the Isle of Axholme, in north Lincolnshire, in 1531. His feast day is May 4
1556 Luca Ghini an Italian physician and botanist, notable as the creator of the first recorded herbarium, as well as the first botanical garden in Europe.
1571 Frederick Casimir of Cieszyn a Polish prince member of the House of Piast in the Cieszyn branch and ruler over Fryštát, Skoczów , and Bielsko.
1600 Jean Nicot a French diplomat and scholar.
1604 Claudio Merulo an Italian composer, publisher and organist of the late Renaissance period, most famous for his innovative keyboard music and his ensemble music composed in the Venetian polychoral style. He was born in Correggio and died in Parma. He was born Claudio Merlotti and he Latinised his surname when he became famous in Venetian cultural clubs
1605 Ulisse Aldrovandi an Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bologna's botanical garden, one of the first in Europe. Carolus Linnaeus and the comte de Buffon reckoned him the father of natural history studies. He is usually referred to, especially in older literature, as Aldrovandus; his name in Italian is equally given as Aldroandi
1615 Adriaan van Roomen a Flemish mathematician.
1616 Magdalene of Brandenburg the daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and his third wife Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst. She married Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
1623 Asprilio Pacelli an Italian Baroque composer. He was born in Vasciano near Narni in Stroncone, Province of Terni, Umbria, Italy; and died in Warsaw
1626 Arthur Lake (bishop) Bishop of Bath and Wells and a translator of the King James Version of The Bible.
1677 Isaac Barrow generally given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus; in particular, for the discovery of the fundamental theorem of calculus. His work centered on the properties of the tangent; Barrow was the first to calculate the tangents of the kappa curve. Isaac Newton was a student of Barrow's, and Newton went on to develop calculus in a modern form. The lunar crater Barrow is named after him
1684 John Nevison one of Britain's most notorious highwaymen, a gentleman rogue supposedly nicknamed Swift Nick by King Charles II after a renowned 200-mile dash from Kent to York to establish an alibi for a robbery he had committed earlier that day. The story inspired William Harrison Ainsworth to include a modified version in his novel Rookwood, in which he attributed the feat to Dick Turpin. There are suggestions that the feat was actually undertaken by one Samuel Nicks
1692 Charles III Duke of Elbeuf the third Duke of Elbeuf and member of the House of Lorraine. He succeeded his father Charles II, Duke of Elbeuf, to the Duchy-Peerage of Elbeuf. His mother was an illegitimate daughter of Henry IV of France and Gabrielle d'Estrées. He was also a Peer of France as well as titular Duke of Guise, Count of Harcourt, Lillebonne and Rieux
1721 Nicolas Desmarets a Controller-General of Finances during the reign of Louis XIV of France.
1722 Claude Gillot a French painter, best known as the master of Watteau and Lancret.
1729 Louis Antoine de Noailles a French bishop and cardinal.
1734 James Thornhill an English painter of historical subjects working in the Italian baroque tradition. He was responsible for some large-scale schemes of murals, including the "Painted Hall" at the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, the paintings on the inside of the dome of St Paul's Cathedral, and works at Chatsworth House and Wimpole Hall
1737 Eustace Budgell an English writer and politician.
1737 Ferdinand Kettler Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1730 to 1737. Ferdinand was the son of Jacob Kettler and Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg. Married in 1730 to Johanna Magdalene of Saxe-Weissenfels
1743 Ursula Katharina Lubomirska a Polish-German noblewoman and mistress of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. In 1722 she married Prince Frederick Louis of Württemberg-Winnental
1774 Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick generalissimus of the Army of Russia, and the husband of Anna Leopoldovna, who reigned as regent of Russia for one year.
1776 Jacques Saly born in Valenciennes to François Marie Saly and his wife Marie Michelle.
1786 Johann Kaspar Füssli a Swiss painter, entomologist and publisher.
1790 Matthew Tilghman an American planter and Revolutionary leader from Maryland, who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776.
1799 Tipu Sultan a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and a scholar, soldier, and poet. Tipu was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore and his wife Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa. Tipu introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, and a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of Mysore silk industry. Tipu expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and wrote the military manual Fathul Mujahidin, considered a pioneer in the use of rocket artillery. He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies in their 1792 and 1799 Siege of Srirangapatna
1800 Armand duc d'Aiguillon II de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu, duke of Aiguillon succeeded his father Emmanuel-Armand de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon.
1811 Nikolay Kamensky a Russian general who outlived his father, Field Marshal Mikhail Kamensky, by two years.
1816 Samuel Dexter an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinet.
1816 Marie-Madeleine Guimard a French ballerina who dominated the Parisian stage during the reign of Louis XVI. For twenty-five years she was the star of the Paris Opera. She made herself even more famous by her love affairs, especially by her long liaison with the Prince of Soubise. According to Edmond de Goncourt, when d'Alembert was asked why dancers like La Guimard made such prodigious fortunes, when singers did not, he responded, "It is a necessary consequence of the laws of motion"
1824 Joseph Joubert a French moralist and essayist, remembered today largely for his Pensées , which was published posthumously.
1839 Denis Davydov a Russian soldier-poet of the Napoleonic Wars who invented a specific genre – hussar poetry noted for its hedonism and bravado – and spectacularly designed his own life to illustrate such poetry.
1840 Carl Ludvig Engel a German architect known for his Empire style, a phase of Neoclassicism. He had a great impact on the architecture of Finland in the first part of the 19th century
1845 Philipp Jakob Cretzschmar a German physician.
1859 Joseph Diaz Gergonne a French mathematician and logician.
1869 Thomas Langlois Lefroy an Irish-Huguenot politician and judge. He served as an MP for the constituency of Dublin University in 1830–1841, Privy Councillor of Ireland in 1835–1869 and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1852–1866
1871 Agénor de Gasparin a French statesman and author.
1873 William Holmes McGuffey best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, the first widely used series of textbooks. It is estimated that at least 122 million copies of McGuffey Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, placing its sales in a category with the Bible and Webster's Dictionary
1875 Heinrich Ewald a German orientalist, theologian, and Biblical exegete. He studied at the University of Göttingen. In 1827 he became extraordinary professor there, in 1831 ordinary professor of theology, and in 1835 professor of oriental languages. In 1837, as a member of the Göttingen Seven, he lost his position at Göttingen on account of his protest against King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover's abrogation of the liberal constitution, and became professor of theology at the University of Tübingen. In 1848, he returned to his old position at Göttingen. When Hanover was annexed by Prussia in 1866, Ewald became a defender of the rights of the ex-king. Among his chief works are: Complete Course on the Hebrew Language , The Poetical Books of the Old Testament , History of the People of Israel , and Antiquities of the People of Israel. Ewald represented the city of Hanover as a member of the Guelph faction in the North German and German Diets
1876 F. C. D. Wyneken a missionary, pastor, and the second president of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. He was also the first president of Concordia Theological Seminary
1879 William Froude an English engineer, hydrodynamicist and naval architect. He was the first to formulate reliable laws for the resistance that water offers to ships and for predicting their stability
1880 Edward Clark (governor) the eighth Governor of Texas. His term coincided with the beginning of the American Civil War
1882 François-Joseph de Champagny a French author and historian. He was the thirteenth member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1869