Born on May 5

867 Emperor Uda the 59th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1163 Ban Kulin the Ban of Bosnia from 1180 to 1204, first as a vassal of the Byzantine Empire and then of the Kingdom of Hungary. He was one of Bosnia's most prominent and notable historic rulers and had a great effect on the development of early Bosnian history. One of his most noteworthy diplomatic achievements is widely considered to have been the signing of the Charter of Ban Kulin, which encouraged trade and established peaceful relations between Dubrovnik and the Kingdom of Bosnia. His son, Stjepan Kulinić succeeded him as Bosnian Ban. Kulin founded the House of Kulinić
1210 Afonso III of Portugal the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249. He was the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca of Castile; he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal, who was removed from the throne on 4 January 1248
1280 John I Count of Blois count of Blois from 1241 to 1280 and lord of Avesnes.
1282 Juan Manuel Prince of Villena a Spanish medieval writer, nephew of Alfonso X of Castile, son of Manuel of Castile and Beatrice of Savoy. He inherited from his father the great Seigneury of Villena, receiving the titles of Lord, Duke and lastly Prince of Villena
1352 Rupert King of Germany Elector Palatine from 1398 and King of Germany from 1400 until his death.
1479 Guru Amar Das the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and was given the title of Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552. He died at an age of 95
1488 Matthew Stewart 2nd Earl of Lennox a prominent Scottish nobleman. Stewart was the son of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox, and Margaret Montgomerie, daughter of Alexander, Master of Montgomerie
1493 Alessandro Pasqualini an Italian Renaissance architect and engineer, born in Bologna, who helped bring Renaissance architecture to the Low Countries.
1504 Stanislaus Hosius a Roman Catholic cardinal; from 1551, Prince-Bishop of the Bishopric of Warmia, Poland; from 1558, papal legate to the Holy Roman Emperor's Imperial Court in Vienna, Austria; from 1566, papal legate to Poland.
1530 Gabriel comte de Montgomery a captain in Henry II's Scots Guards. He is remembered for mortally injuring Henry in a jousting accident and subsequently converting to Protestantism, the faith that the Scottish Guard sought to suppress
1542 Thomas Cecil 1st Earl of Exeter an English politician and soldier.
1590 Jakub Sobieski a Polish noble, parliamentarian, diarist, political activist, military leader and father of King John III Sobieski. He was the son of castellan and voivode Marek Sobieski and Jadwiga Snopkowska
1590 John Albert II Duke of Mecklenburg a Duke of Mecklenburg. From 1608 to 1611, he was the nominal ruler of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; the actual ruler being the regent, his great-uncle Charles From 1611 to 1621 John Albert and his brother Adolf Frederick I jointly ruled the whole Duchy of Mecklenburg. From 1621, John Albert ruled Mecklenburg-Güstrow alone
1684 Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné the wife of Adrien Maurice de Noailles, 3rd Duke of Noailles. She was the niece of Françoise d'Aubigné, Madame de Maintenon, and her heiress
1699 Hubert Drouais a French painter, portraitist and miniaturist.
1708 Johann Adolf Scheibe a German-Danish composer and significant critic and theorist of music.
1712 Janusz Aleksander Sanguszko a magnate in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He held the titles of miecznik and Court Marshal of Lithuania. He was not interested in politics, and spent most of his life using the fortunes previous members of the Sanguszko family gathered, spending it on his lavish lifestyle. Indebted, in 1753 he agreed to divide the ordynacja ostrogoska he inherited from his mother, Marianna Lubomirska, among the members and allies of the familia. This decision, known as the transakcja kolbuszowska, was opposed by the enemy of familia, hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, and was finally accepted by the decision of Sejm in 1766
1724 Princess Bernardina Christina Sophia of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach a Princess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach by birth and Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt by marriage.
1734 François-Jean de Chastellux a military officer who served during the War of American Independence as a major general in the French expeditionary forces led by general Comte de Rochambeau. Being on general Rochambeau's staff for the duration of the war, Chastellux acted as the principal liaison officer between the French commander in chief and George Washington. However the Chevalier de Chastellux was also widely recognized, at the time of his campaigns in America, as a highly talented man of letters and a member of the Académie française
1738 Adolphus Frederick IV Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz a Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
1743 Yevdokiya Yusupova a Duchess consort of Courland. She married the Duke of Courland, Peter von Biron, on March 6, 1774 in Mitava. She had no issue
1745 Carl August Ehrensvärd a Swedish naval officer, painter, author, and neo-classical architect.
1746 Jean-Nicolas Pache a French politician who served as Mayor of Paris from 1793 to 1794.
1747 Leopold II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, thus the brother of Marie Antoinette. Leopold was a moderate proponent of enlightened absolutism
1749 Jean-Frédéric Edelmann a French classical composer. He was born in Strasbourg but, after studying law and music, he moved to Paris in 1774 where he played and taught the piano. It is possible that Edelmann worked for some time in London. During the French Revolution he was appointed administrator of the Bas-Rhin. In July 1794 he was arrested and executed by guillotine
1764 Robert Craufurd a Scottish soldier. After a military career which took him from India to the Netherlands, he was given command of the Light Division in the Napoleonic Peninsular War under the Duke of Wellington. Craufurd was a strict disciplinarian and somewhat prone to violent mood swings which earned him the nickname "Black Bob". He was mortally wounded storming the lesser breach in the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 January 1812 and died four days later
1768 Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck a Prussian field marshal and military adviser in the Napoleonic Wars.
1771 Duke Alexander of Württemberg (1771–1833) a Duke of Württemberg. The son of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg and of Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. His sister Sophie Dorothea married Tsar Paul I of Russia
1775 Johann Christoph Friedrich Klug a German entomologist. He described the butterflies and some other insects of Upper Egypt and Arabia in Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg and Wilhelm Friedrich Hemprich's Symbolæ Physicæ. He was professor of medicine and entomology in the Humboldt-Universitat where he curated the insect collections from 1810 to 1856. At the same time he directed the Botanic Garden in Berlin which contains his collections. Klug worked mainly on Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. The plant genus Klugia was named in his honour as well as the butterflies Geitoneura klugii and Heliophisma klugii
1780 Michele Tenore an Italian botanist active in Rome, Italy.
1800 Louis Christophe François Hachette a French publisher.
1807 Károly Kalchbrenner a Hungarian mycologist. He trained in theology early in life and became a priest in Spišské Vlachy, north-eastern Slovakia. His contributions include the publication of 60 papers and description of more than 400 fungi from Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. He wrote and illustrated the Icones Selectae Hymenomycetum Hungariae. Among those he later collaborated with are Ferdinand von Mueller in Victoria, Australia, John Medley Wood in South Africa, Mordecai Cubitt Cooke in England and Felix von Thümen in Austria. He was elected a full member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and a corresponding member of the Linnean Society of New South Wales
1810 Eugène Cormon a French dramatist and librettist. He used his mother's name, Cormon, during his career
1811 John William Draper an American scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian and photographer. He is credited with producing the first clear photograph of a female face and the first detailed photograph of the Moon. He was also the first president of the American Chemical Society and a founder of the New York University School of Medicine. One of Draper's books, the anti-Catholic History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, was widely read and was translated into several languages. His son, Henry Draper, and his granddaughter, Antonia Maury, were astronomers, her younger sister, Carlotta Maury was a palentologist, and his eldest son, John Christopher Draper, was a chemist
1813 Søren Kierkegaard widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christendom, morality, ethics, psychology and philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and parables. Much of his philosophical work deals with the issues of how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to concrete human reality over abstract thinking, and highlighting the importance of personal choice and commitment. He was a fierce critic of idealist intellectuals and philosophers of his time, such as Swedenborg, Hegel, Goethe, Fichte, Schelling, Schlegel, and Hans Christian Andersen
1815 Eugène Marin Labiche a French dramatist.
1818 Karl Marx a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He is one of the founders of sociology and social science. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
1819 Stanisław Moniuszko a Polish composer, conductor and teacher. He wrote many popular art songs and operas, and his music is filled with patriotic folk themes of the peoples of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1819 Jean-Baptiste Campenon a French general and politician.
1821 Jean-Louis Hamon a French painter.
1825 Wilhelm Hertenstein a Swiss politician.
1826 Eugénie de Montijo the last Empress consort of the French from 1853 to 1871 as the wife of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
1828 Robert von Puttkamer a Prussian statesman, most prominent in his roles as Prussian minister of public education and worship in 1879 and then as interior minister in 1881, under his brother-in-law Otto von Bismarck. He also introduced reforms in German orthography
1828 Albert Marth a German astronomer who worked in England and Ireland.
1830 John Batterson Stetson a U.S. hatter, hat manufacturer, and, in the 1860s, the inventor of the cowboy hat. He founded the John Stetson Company as a manufacturer of headwear; the company's hats are now commonly referred to simply as Stetsons
1832 Hubert Howe Bancroft an American historian and ethnologist who wrote, published and collected works concerning the western United States, Texas, California, Alaska, Mexico, Central America and British Columbia.
1833 Lazarus Fuchs a German mathematician who contributed important research in the field of linear differential equations. He was born in Moschin and died in Berlin, Germany. He was buried in Schöneberg in the Matthew's Cemetery. His grave in section H is preserved and listed as a grave of honour of the State of Berlin
1833 August Fick a German philologist.
1833 Ferdinand von Richthofen a German traveller, geographer, and scientist. He is noted for coining the terms "Seidenstraße" and "Seidenstraßen" = "Silk Road" or "Silk Route" in 1877. He also standardized the practices of chorography and chorology. He was an uncle of the World War I flying ace Manfred von Richthofen, best known as the "Red Baron"