Born on May 8

1278 Emperor Duanzong of Song the eighth and penultimate emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty of China who reigned from 1276 to 1278 and died at the early age of ten. He was also known as the "Nation Establishing Duke ". Born Zhào Shì , his father was sixth Southern Song Emperor Duzong. He became Prince Ji in 1274 and Prince Yi in 1276. Enthroned as emperor at Fuzhou on 14 June 1276, his only era took the name of Jǐngyán. Duanzong's temple name means "Final Ancestor"
1326 Joan I Countess of Auvergne the daughter of William XII, Count of Auvergne and Boulogne, by his wife, Margaret, a sister of Philip III of Navarre. She was Queen of France by her marriage to King John She inherited the counties of Auvergne and Boulogne after the death of her father
1427 John Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester an English nobleman and scholar, Lord High Treasurer, Lord High Constable and Deputy Governor of Ireland. He was known as the Butcher of England
1460 Frederick I Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach born at Ansbach as the eldest son of the Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg by his second wife Anna, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. His elder half-brother was the Elector Johann Cicero of Brandenburg. Friedrich succeeded his father as Margrave of Ansbach in 1486 and his younger brother as Margrave of Bayreuth in 1495
1492 Andrea Alciato an Italian jurist and writer. He is regarded as the founder of the French school of legal humanists
1521 Peter Canisius an important Jesuit Catholic priest who supported the Catholic faith during the Protestant Reformation in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, and Switzerland. The restoration of the Catholic Church in Germany after the Protestant Reformation is largely attributed to the work there of the Society of Jesus, which he led. He is venerated in the Catholic Church as a saint and as a Doctor of the Church
1550 John I Count Palatine of Zweibrücken Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken during 1569-1604.
1592 Francis Quarles an English poet most famous for his Emblem book aptly entitled Emblems.
1622 Claes Rålamb a Swedish statesman. In 1660 he was appointed Governor of Uppland County and in 1664 he served in the Privy Council. Between 1673 and 1678, he served as the Over-Governor of Stockholm
1628 Angelo Italia an Italian Jesuit and Baroque architect, who was born in Licata and died in Palermo.
1629 Niels Juel a Danish admiral. He was the brother of the diplomat Jens Juel
1632 Heino Heinrich Graf von Flemming a Saxon, later Brandenburger army leader and Field Marshal and Governor of Berlin.
1639 Giovanni Battista Gaulli an Italian artist working in the High Baroque and early Rococo periods. He is best known for his grand illusionistic vault frescos in the Church of the Gesù in Rome, Italy. His work was influenced by Gian Lorenzo Bernini
1641 Nicolaes Witsen a Dutch statesman who was mayor of Amsterdam thirteen times, between 1682-1706. In 1693 he became administrator of the VOC. In 1689 he was extraordinary-ambassador to the English court, and became Fellow of the Royal Society. In his free time he was cartographer, maritime writer, and an authority on shipbuilding. His books on the subject are important sources on Dutch shipbuilding in the 17th century. Furthermore, he was an expert on Russian affairs. He was the first to describe Siberia, Far East and Central Asia in his study Noord en Oost Tartarye
1653 Claude Louis Hector de Villars the last great general of Louis XIV of France and one of the most brilliant commanders in French military history, one of only six Marshals who have been promoted to Marshal General of France.
1657 Martino Altomonte an Italian Baroque painter of Austrian descent who mainly worked in Poland and Austria.
1670 Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke of St Albans an illegitimate son of King Charles II of England by his mistress Nell Gwynne.
1705 António José da Silva a Brazilian dramatist, known as "the Jew". The Brazilian spelling of his first name is Antônio, António José da Silva in Hebrew אנטוניו ז'וזה דה סילווה
1720 William Cavendish 4th Duke of Devonshire a British Whig statesman who was briefly nominal Prime Minister of Great Britain. He was the first son of William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire and Catherine Hoskins
1731 Beilby Porteus a Church of England reformer and a leading abolitionist in England. He was the first Anglican in a position of authority to seriously challenge the Church's position on slavery
1735 Nathaniel Dance-Holland a notable English portrait painter and later a politician.
1742 Jean-Baptiste Krumpholz a Czech composer and harpist.
1744 Nikolay Novikov a Russian writer and philanthropist most representative of his country's Enlightenment. Frequently considered to be the first Russian journalist, he aimed at advancing the cultural and educational level of the Russian public
1745 Carl Stamitz a German composer of partial Czech ancestry. He was the most prominent representative of the second generation of the Mannheim School
1776 Prince Bagrat of Georgia a Georgian royal prince of the House of Bagrationi and an author. A son of King George XII of Georgia, Bagrat occupied important administrative posts in the last years of the Georgian monarchy, after whose abolition by the Russian Empire in 1801 he entered the imperial civil service. He was known in Russia as the tsarevich Bagrat Georgievich Gruzinsky. He is the author of works in the history of Georgia, veterinary medicine and economics. Bagrat is the forefather of the surviving descendants of the last kings of Georgia
1781 Pedro de Sousa Holstein 1st Duke of Palmela one of the most important Portuguese diplomats and statesmen in the first half of the 19th century. He also served as the country's first official Prime Minister, the office in essence having already existed
1786 John Vianney venerated in the Catholic Church as a saint and as the patron saint of all priests. He is often referred to as the "Curé d'Ars". He became internationally notable for his priestly and pastoral work in his parish because of the radical spiritual transformation of the community and its surroundings. Catholics attribute this to his saintly life, mortification, his persevering ministry in the sacrament of confession, and his ardent devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and to Saint Philomena
1796 François Mignet a French journalist and historian of the French Revolution.
1799 Konstantin Igelström Gustavovich Igelström Russian Decembrist from the noble Swedish family of Igelström.
1800 Armand Carrel a French journalist and political writer.
1818 Samuel Leonard Tilley a Canadian politician and one of the Fathers of Confederation. Tilley was descended from United Empire Loyalists on both sides of his family. As a pharmacist, he went into business as a druggist
1821 William Henry Vanderbilt an American businessman and philanthropist. He was the eldest son of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt and a prominent member of the Vanderbilt family
1824 William Walker (filibuster) an American lawyer, journalist and adventurer, who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering." Walker became president of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies. He was executed by the government of Honduras in 1860
1825 George Bruce Malleson an English officer in India and an author, born in Wimbledon.
1828 Henry Dunant a Swiss businessman and social activist. During a business trip in 1859, he was witness to the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino in modern-day Italy. He recorded his memories and experiences in the book A Memory of Solferino which inspired the creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863. The 1864 Geneva Convention was based on Dunant's ideas. In 1901 he received the first Nobel Peace Prize together with Frédéric Passy
1828 Charbel Makhluf Saint Charbel Makhluf, O.L.M. was a Maronite monk and priest from Lebanon. During his life he obtained a wide reputation for holiness and he has been canonized by the Catholic Church
1829 Louis Moreau Gottschalk an American composer and pianist, best known as a virtuoso performer of his own romantic piano works. He spent most of his working career outside of the United States
1833 Frank Wheaton a career military officer in the United States Army during the American Civil War and Indian Wars.
1835 Bertalan Székely a Hungarian Romantic painter of historical themes. "The Discovery of Louis II's Dead Body", "Women of Eger", "Battle of Mohács", "Ladislas V" are among the most important of his historical paintings. Szekely is also known for his many murals
1837 Alphonse Legros a French painter, etcher, sculptor, and medallist.
1837 Prince Albert of Prussia (1837–1906) a Prussian general field marshal, Herrenmeister of the Order of Saint John from 1883 until his death, and regent of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1885.
1839 George Miller Beard an American neurologist who popularized the term neurasthenia, starting around 1869.
1839 Adolphe-Basile Routhier a Canadian judge, author, and lyricist. He wrote the lyrics of the original French version of the Canadian national anthem O Canada. He was born in Saint-Placide, Quebec, to Charles Routhier and Angélique Lafleur
1842 Emil Christian Hansen a Danish mycologist and fermentation physiologist.
1844 Hermann Graedener a German composer, conductor and teacher.
1846 Émile Gallé considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement.
1846 Oscar Hammerstein I a businessman, theater impresario and composer in New York City. His passion for opera led him to open several opera houses, and he rekindled opera's popularity in America. He was the grandfather of lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II
1848 Theodorus B. M. Mason the founder and first head of the USA Office of Naval Intelligence, with the post of Chief Intelligence Officer.
1850 Ross Barnes one of the stars of baseball's National Association and the early National League , playing second base and shortstop. He played for the dominant Boston Red Stockings teams of the early 1870s, along with Albert Spalding, Cal McVey, George Wright, Harry Wright, Jim O'Rourke, and Deacon White. Despite playing for these star-studded teams, many claim that Ross was the most valuable to his teams
1851 Antonio Rivera Cabezas a Liberal Central American lawyer and politician. From July 10, 1823 to October 4, 1823 he was a member of the first executive triumvirate that governed the Federal Republic of Central America. From March 9, 1830 to February 10, 1831 he was head of state of Guatemala