Born on November 1

846 Louis the Stammerer the King of Aquitaine and later King of West Francia. He was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. During the peace negotiations between his father and Erispoe of Brittany, Louis was betrothed to an unnamed daughter of Erispoe in 856. It is not known if this was the same daughter who later married Gurivant. The contract was broken in 857 upon Erispoe's murder
1339 Rudolf IV Duke of Austria a scion of the House of Habsburg and Duke of Austria and Duke of Styria and Carinthia from 1358, as well as Count of Tyrol from 1363 and first Duke of Carniola from 1364 until his death. After the Habsburgs got nothing from the decree of the Golden Bull in 1356, he gave order to draw up the "Privilegium Maius", a fake document to empower the Austrian rulers
1351 Leopold III Duke of Austria Duke of Austria from 1365 to 1379, and Duke of Styria, Carniola and Carinthia in 1365–1386.
1526 Catherine Jagiellon the wife of John III of Sweden. As such, she was Duchess of Finland , Queen of Sweden and Grand Princess of Finland. Catherine had significant influence over state affairs during the reign of her husband, and negotiated with the pope to introduce a counter reformation in Sweden
1530 Étienne de La Boétie a French judge, writer, and "a founder of modern political philosophy in France." He "has been best remembered as the great and close friend of the eminent essayist Michel de Montaigne, in one of history's most notable friendships.".
1539 Pierre Pithou a French lawyer and scholar. He is also known as Petrus Pithoeus
1542 Tarquinia Molza an Italian singer, poet, conductor, composer, and natural philosopher. She was considered a great virtuosa. She was involved with the famous Concerto delle donne, although whether she sang with them or coached them is not clear. She also played the viola bastarda
1549 Anna of Austria Queen of Spain Queen of Spain by virtue of her marriage to her uncle, King Philip II of Spain.
1567 Diego Sarmiento de Acuña 1st Count of Gondomar a Spanish diplomat, the Spanish ambassador to England in 1613 to 1622 and afterwards, as a kind of ambassador emeritus, Spain's leading expert on English affairs until his death.
1585 Jan Brożek a Polish polymath: a mathematician, astronomer, physician, poet, writer, musician and rector of the Kraków Academy.
1593 Abel Servien a French diplomat who served Cardinal Mazarin and signed for the French the Treaty of Westphalia. He was an early member of the noblesse de robe in the service of the French state
1596 Pietro da Cortona primarily known by the name of his native town of Cortona in Tuscany. He was the leading Italian Baroque painter of his time and, along with his contemporaries and rivals Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini, was one of the key figures in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture. He was also an important designer of interior decorations
1607 Georg Philipp Harsdorffer a Baroque-period German poet and translator.
1609 Matthew Hale (jurist) an influential English barrister, judge and lawyer most noted for his treatise Historia Placitorum Coronæ, or The History of the Pleas of the Crown. Born to a barrister and his wife, who had both died by the time he was 5, Hale was raised by his father's relative, a strict Puritan, and inherited his faith. In 1626 he matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford , intending to become a priest, but after a series of distractions was persuaded to become a barrister like his father thanks to an encounter with a Serjeant-at-Law in a dispute over his estate. On 8 November 1628 he joined Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the Bar on 17 May 1636. As a barrister, Hale represented a variety of Royalist figures during the prelude and duration of the English Civil War, including Thomas Wentworth and William Laud; it has been hypothesised that Hale was to represent Charles I at his state trial, and conceived the defence Charles used. Despite the Royalist loss, Hale's reputation for integrity and his political neutrality saved him from any repercussions, and under the Commonwealth of England he was made Chairman of the Hale Commission, which investigated law reform. Following the Commission's dissolution, Oliver Cromwell made him a Justice of the Common Pleas
1611 François-Marie comte de Broglie a prominent soldier and commander in the Thirty Years' War. Born in Piedmont, he was originally known as Francesco-Maria di Broglia, conte di Revel before becoming naturalized in France after 1643
1625 Oliver Plunkett the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland who was the last victim of the Popish Plot. Plunkett was beatified in 1920 and canonised in 1975, the first new Irish saint for almost seven hundred years
1627 Georg Eberhard Rumphius now eastern Indonesia, and is best known for his work Herbarium Amboinense. In addition to his major contributions to plant systematics, he is also remembered for his skills as an ethnographer, and his frequent defense of Ambonese peoples against colonialism
1636 Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux a French poet and critic.
1643 John Strype an English clergyman, historian and biographer.
1655 Ferdinand Kettler Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1730 to 1737. Ferdinand was the son of Jacob Kettler and Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg. Married in 1730 to Johanna Magdalene of Saxe-Weissenfels
1661 Louis Grand Dauphin the eldest son and heir of Louis XIV, King of France, and his spouse, Maria Theresa of Spain. As the heir apparent to the French throne, he was styled Dauphin. He became known as Le Grand Dauphin after the birth of his own son, Le Petit Dauphin. As he died before his father, he never became king
1661 Florent Carton Dancourt born at Fontainebleau. He belonged to a family of rank, and his parents entrusted his education to Pere de la Rue, a Jesuit, who made earnest efforts to induce him to join the order. But he had no religious vocation and proceeded to study law
1665 Antonio de Zamora a Spanish playwright.
1666 James Sherard an English apothecary, botanist, and amateur musician. He was born in Bushby, Leicestershire to George and Mary Sherwood; it is unknown why his surname was changed. His older brother, William, also became a noted botanist. James Sherard may have been educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood, which his brother attended, but his name is nowhere to be found in the published list of students. On 7 February 1682, apothecary Charles Watts, who served as curator of Chelsea Physic Garden, took him in as an apprentice. After honing his craft with Watts, Sherard moved to Mark Lane, London, where he started his own business
1704 Paul Daniel Longolius the main editor of volumes 3 through 18 of Johann Heinrich Zedler's Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon from 1733 to 1739, replacing Jacob August Franckenstein, who had edited the first two volumes. His successor was Carl Günther Ludovici
1713 Antonio Genovesi an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy.
1717 Princess Anne Thérèse of Savoy a Savoyard princess born in Paris, France. She was the second wife of Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, a military leader and friend of Louis XV
1720 Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte a French admiral.
1727 Ivan Shuvalov called the Maecenas of the Russian Enlightenment and the first Russian Minister of Education. Russia's first theatre, university, and academy of arts were instituted with his active participation
1743 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst a German naturalist and entomologist from Petershagen, Minden-Ravensberg. He served as a chaplain in the Prussian army. His marriage in Berlin, 1770, with Euphrosyne Luise Sophie , daughter of the Prussian Hofrat Libert Waldschmidt seems to have been childless
1752 Józef Zajączek a Polish general and politician.
1757 Antonio Canova an Italian sculptor from the Republic of Venice who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nude flesh. The epitome of the neoclassical style, his work marked a return to classical refinement after the theatrical excesses of Baroque sculpture. Among Canova's English pupils were sculptors Sir Richard Westmacott and John Gibson
1762 Spencer Perceval the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 4 October 1809 until his death on 11 May 1812. He is the only British Prime Minister to have been assassinated. He is also the only Solicitor General or Attorney General to have been Prime Minister
1769 Garlieb Merkel a Baltic German writer and activist and an early Estophile and Lettophile.
1773 Maria Theresa of Austria-Este Queen of Sardinia born an Archduchess of Austria and a Princess of Modena. She was later Queen of Sardinia as consort of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia
1778 Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden King of Sweden from 1792 until his abdication in 1809. He was the son of Gustav III of Sweden and his queen consort Sophia Magdalena, eldest daughter of Frederick V of Denmark and his first wife Louise of Great Britain. He was the last Swedish ruler of Finland, the occupation of which by Russian Czar Alexander I in 1808-09 was the immediate cause of his violent downfall. After an army revolt, the king was seized by officers and forced to relinquish the throne on behalf of his family on March 29; the same date as his father's death. The Instrument of Government subsequently written was adopted on June 6, the current National Day of Sweden, and was in effect until replaced in 1974. The crown passed to his childless uncle, Charles XIII, whose want of heirs set into motion an intense quest for a successor who was found the following year in the person of Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, who assumed the throne in 1818, commencing the present House of Bernadotte
1781 Joseph Karl Stieler a German painter. From 1820 until 1855 he worked as royal court painter of the Bavarian kings. He is known for his Neoclassical portraits, especially for the Gallery of Beauties at Nymphenburg Palace in Munich
1782 F. J. Robinson 1st Viscount Goderich Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon PC , styled The Honourable J. Robinson until 1827 and known as The Viscount Goderich /ˈɡoʊdrɪtʃ/ GOHD-rich between 1827 and 1833, the name by which he is best known to history, was a British statesman. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between August 1827 and January 1828
1793 Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz a Baltic German physician, botanist, zoologist and entomologist.
1797 Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg the daughter of Duke Louis of Württemberg and Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg.
1800 Charles Antoine Lemaire a French botanist and botanical author, noted for his publications on Cactaceae.
1800 Ferdinand Flocon a French journalist and politician who was one of the founding members of the Provisional Government at the start of the French Second Republic in 1848. He was Minister of Agriculture and Commerce for the Executive Commission of 1848. He opposed Louis Napoleon and was forced into exile in the Second French Empire
1803 Isaac Johnson a US politician and the 12th Governor of the state of Louisiana.
1805 Charles Christopher Frost an American botanist. He described several species of fungi from the New England area of the United States. In one paper, Frost described 22 new species of boletes, and he was later credited with the discovery of three additional species. His personal herbarium of specimens were given to the University of Vermont in 1902. Portions of his collection today are distributed between the Farlow Herbarium at Harvard University, the New York State Museum, and the Buffalo Museum of Science
1805 Alessandro Nini an Italian composer of operas and church music, also chamber music and symphonies. Of the eight operas he composed, La marescialla d'Ancre is considered his best work. He also contributed to a portion of Messa per Rossini. Specifically the fifth section of Sequentia, Ingemisco for solo tenor and chorus
1808 John Taylor (Mormon) the third president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1880 to 1887. He is the only president of the LDS Church to have been born outside of the United States
1814 Franz Josef Ruprecht an Austrian-born physician and botanist active in the Russian Empire, where he was known as Frants Ivanovič Ruprekht.
1815 Crawford Long an American surgeon and pharmacist best known for his first use of inhaled diethyl ether as an anesthetic. Although his work was unknown outside a small circle of colleagues for several years, he is now recognized as the first physician to have administered ether anesthesia for surgery
1816 Friedrich Wilhelm Hackländer a successful German author.
1817 Maximilian de Beauharnais 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg the husband of Grand Duchess Maria Nikolayevna of Russia and first cousin of Emperors Napoleon III of the French and Francis Joseph I of Austria. He was a grandson of Napoleon I's first wife, the Empress Josephine, by her prior marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais