Born on November 12

857 Erispoe Duke of Brittany from 851. After the death of his father Nominoe, he led a successful military campaign against the Franks, culminating in his victory at the Battle of Jengland. He is subsequently referred to as "King of Brittany"
1139 Sigurd Slembe a Norwegian pretender to the throne.
1524 Diego de Landa a Spanish bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán. He left future generations with a mixed legacy in his writings, which contain much valuable information on pre-Columbian Maya civilization, and his actions which destroyed much of that civilization's history, literature, and traditions. He is a major figure in the so-called "Black Legend"
1528 Qi Jiguang a Chinese military general of the Ming Dynasty. He is best known for leading Ming forces to defend China's east coastal regions from raids by the wokou in the 16th century and is widely regarded as a national hero in Chinese culture
1547 Claude of Valois the second daughter of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.
1606 Jeanne Mance a French nurse and settler of New France. She arrived in New France two years after the Ursuline Nuns came to Quebec. Among the founders of Montreal, Canada in 1642, she established its first hospital, the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, in 1645. She returned twice to France to seek financial support for the hospital. After providing most of the care directly for years, in 1657 she recruited three sisters of the Religious Hospitallers of Joseph, and continued to direct operations of the hospital
1615 Richard Baxter an English Puritan church leader, poet, hymn-writer, theologian, and controversialist. Dean Stanley called him "the chief of English Protestant Schoolmen". After some false starts, he made his reputation by his ministry at Kidderminster, and at around the same time began a long and prolific career as theological writer. After the Restoration he refused preferment, while retaining a non-separatist Presbyterian approach, and became one of the most influential leaders of the Nonconformists, spending time in prison
1627 Diego Luis de San Vitores a Spanish Jesuit missionary who founded the first Catholic church on the island of Guam. He is responsible for establishing the Spanish presence in the Mariana Islands
1651 Juana Inés de la Cruz Sister Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H. was a self-taught scholar and poet of the Baroque school, and Hieronymite nun of New Spain, known in her lifetime as "The Tenth Muse." Although she lived in a colonial era when Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, she is considered today both a Mexican writer and a contributor to the Spanish Golden Age, and she stands at the beginning of the history of Mexican literature in the Spanish language
1660 Francesco Maria de' Medici Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro a member of the House of Medici. He was successively a Governor of Siena, cardinal and later the heir of the Duchies of Rovere and Montefeltro by right of his mother
1662 Francesco Barberini (1662–1738) an Italian Cardinal of the family of Pope Urban VIII and of the Princes of Palestrina.
1684 Edward Vernon an English naval officer. Vernon was born in Westminster and went to Westminster School. He joined the Royal Navy in 1700 and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1702. After five years as Lieutenant, he was appointed Captain in 1706. His first command was the HMS Rye, part of the fleet of Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell
1709 Catherine Cadière an alleged French witch. The trial of Catherine Cadiére in 1731 is one of the most famous of its kind in French history, and have been referred to many times in literature, notably in the pornographic novel Thérèse Philosophe
1715 Kajetan Sołtyk a Polish Catholic priest, bishop of Kiev from 1756, bishop of Cracow from 13 March 1759.
1729 Louis Antoine de Bougainville a French admiral and explorer. A contemporary of James Cook, he took part in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War against Britain. He later gained fame for his expeditions, the first recorded settlement on the Falkland Islands and his voyages into the Pacific Ocean
1743 Jacques Antoine Hippolyte Comte de Guibert a French general and military writer. Born at Montauban, he accompanied his father in wars before he became a general himself. He published in 1770 an essay on tactics in London, which was very influential in his time
1746 Tiradentes a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as the Inconfidência Mineira whose aim was full independence from the Portuguese colonial power and to create a Brazilian republic. When the plan was discovered, Tiradentes was arrested, tried and publicly hanged. Since the 19th century he has been considered a national hero of Brazil and patron of the Military Police
1746 Jacques Charles a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles wrote almost nothing about mathematics, and most of what has been credited to him was due to mistaking him with another Jacques Charles, also a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, entering on May 12, 1785. He was sometimes called Charles the Geometer. Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first hydrogen-filled balloon in August 1783; then in December 1783, Charles and his co-pilot Nicolas-Louis Robert ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet in a manned balloon. Their pioneering use of hydrogen for lift led to this type of balloon being named a Charlière
1755 Gerhard von Scharnhorst a general in Prussian service, Chief of the Prussian General Staff, noted for his military theories, his reforms of the Prussian army, and his leadership during the Napoleonic Wars.
1758 Jean Joseph Mounier a French politician and judge.
1774 Charles Bell a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, neurologist, and philosophical theologian. He is noted for discovering the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves in the spinal cord. He is also noted for describing Bell's Palsy
1780 Piet Retief a South African Boer leader. Settling in 1814 in the frontier region of the Cape Colony, he assumed command of punitive expeditions in response to raiding parties from the adjacent Xhosa territory. He became a spokesperson for the frontier farmers who voiced their discontent, and wrote the Voortrekkers' declaration at their departure from the colony
1790 Letitia Christian Tyler First Lady of the United States from 1841 until her death.
1795 Thaddeus William Harris an American entomologist and botanist. For the last few years of his life Harris was the librarian of Harvard University
1801 Wilhelm Sihler a German American Lutheran minister. A proponent for Christian education, Wilhelm Sihler founded Concordia Theological Seminary, in Fort Wayne, Indiana
1804 Joachim Steetz a German botanist. His herbarium, comprising more than 5000 specimens from over 160 collectors and 50 countries was purchased in 1863 by Victorian Government Botanist Ferdinand von Mueller for the sum of 80 pounds
1815 Elizabeth Cady Stanton an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized women's rights and women's suffrage movements in the United States
1817 Gustav Nottebohm a pianist, teacher, musical editor and composer who spent most of his career in Vienna. He is particularly celebrated for his studies of Beethoven
1817 Carlo Pedrotti an Italian conductor, administrator and composer, principally of opera. An associate of Giuseppe Verdi's, he also taught two internationally renowned Italian operatic tenors, Francesco Tamagno and Alessandro Bonci
1817 Bahá'u'lláh the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. He claimed to be the prophetic fulfilment of Bábism, a 19th-century outgrowth of Shí‘ism, but in a broader sense claimed to be a messenger from God referring to the fulfilment of the eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity, and other major religions
1819 Monier Monier-Williams the second Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University, England. He studied, documented and taught Asian languages, especially Sanskrit, Persian and Hindustani
1819 Daniel Sanders (lexicographer) a German lexicographer of Jewish parentage. He is famous for lexicons and dictionaries
1827 Gustav Merkel a German organist and composer.
1830 Brynjulf Bergslien a noted Norwegian sculptor.
1831 Anton Kerner von Marilaun an Austrian botanist and professor at the University of Vienna.
1831 Eli H. Janney the inventor of the modern knuckle coupler that replaced link and pin couplers on North American railroads.
1833 Alexander Borodin a Russian Romantic composer, doctor and chemist. He was a member of the group of composers called The Five , who were dedicated to producing a specifically Russian kind of art music. He is best known for his symphonies, his two string quartets, In the Steppes of Central Asia and his opera Prince Igor. Music from Prince Igor and his string quartets was later adapted for the US musical Kismet
1835 Charles Méray a French mathematician. He is noted as the first to publish an arithmetical theory of irrational numbers. His work did not have much of a role in the history of mathematics because France, at that time, was less interested in such matters than Germany
1840 Auguste Rodin a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art
1842 Ōyama Iwao a Japanese field marshal, and one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Army.
1842 Franciszka Siedliska the founder of a Roman Catholic religious institute, the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth.
1842 John William Strutt 3rd Baron Rayleigh an English physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904. He also discovered the phenomenon now called Rayleigh scattering, which can be used to explain why the sky is blue, and predicted the existence of the surface waves now known as Rayleigh waves. Rayleigh's textbook, The Theory of Sound, is still referred to by acoustic engineers today
1845 William Lucas Distant an English entomologist.
1847 Louis de Rougemont a would-be explorer who claimed to have had adventures in Australasia.
1847 Alexey Sergeyevich Yermolov a Russian politician.
1848 Eduard Müller (Swiss politician) a Swiss politician, Mayor of Bern , President of the Swiss National Council and member of the Swiss Federal Council. He was a member of the Free Democratic Party
1848 Li Lianying an imperial eunuch during the Qing Dynasty who rose to power during the rule of Empress Dowager Cixi, who was the de facto ruler of China for thirty-nine years from 1869–1908.
1850 Mikhail Chigorin a leading Russian chess player. The last great player of the Romantic chess style, he also served as a major source of inspiration for the "Soviet Chess School", which dominated the chess world in the middle and latter parts of the 20th century
1850 Edmund von Hellmer an Austrian sculptor who worked in the styles of Historicism and Art Nouveau.
1850 Princess Theresa of Bavaria a Bavarian princess, ethnologist, zoologist, botanist, travel writer and leader in social care.